Skip to main content

Full text of "The Russian diary of an Englishman, Petrograd, 1915-1917"

See other formats


PORTRAIT OF THE EMPEROR NICOLAS II 
By VALENTINE SYEROV 



THE RUSSIAN DIARY 
OF AN ENGLISHMAN 

Petrograd, 1 9 15-19 1 7 



NEW YORK 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE AND COMPANY 

1919 



Printed in Great Britain 






CONTENTS 



NINETEEN FIFTEEN : 

Petrograd : Moscow : The Hermitage Pictures : Fore- 
bodings in the Capital : Karsavina : Palace of the Grand 
Duke Dmitri : Interview with Sazonov : The Empress's 
Hospital : Church at Tsarskoe Selo : M. Stolypin's 
Daughters : Visit to Dvinsk : On a Hospital Train : The 
Tzesarevich at the Front : Visit to Anglo-Russian 
Hospital pp. 11-39 

NINETEEN SIXTEEN : 

Dinner at the French Embassy : Interview with the 
Emperor : The Emperor on Lord Kitchener : Syerov's 
Portrait of the Emperor : Cossack Georgian Officers : 
Crossing the Caucasus Mountains : Good Friday Cere- 
monies : At Kiev : Lady Muriel Paget : American Finan- 
ciers in Petrograd : Voyage on the Volga : The Tzesare- 
vich in Stavka : Journey to England : At Torneo : At 
the Kasan Cathedral : Disappearance of Rasputin : 
Grand Duke Dmitri and Rasputin : Concerning Ras- 
putin's Death pp. 43-79 

NINETEEN SEVENTEEN : 

Rasputin at Yusupov Palace : Murder of Rasputin : 
Deportation of Dmitri : Influence of Sir George 
Buchanan : Harsh Treatment of Culprits : Petition 
to the Emperor : Sazonov Ambassador to England : 
The British Mission : Street Demonstrations : Firing 
on the Crowd : Cossacks Patrolling the Streets : 
Sympathy with the Populace : Annihilation of the 
Police : The Emperor at Bologoe : Death of Stackel- 
berg : The Social Democrats : Situation at Foreign 
Office : The New Government : Abdication of the 
Emperor : Food Scarcity : Visit to Tsarskoe Selo : 

vn\ 6 



405970 



viii CONTENTS 

NINETEEN SEVENTEEN continued 

The Empress and the Abdication : Soldiers support 
the Revolution : The Dowager Empress : Emperor and 
Empress arrested : Break-up of the Army : The Ballet 
under New Regime : Grand Duchess Vladimir arrested : 
Felix Yusupov : Constitution for Russia : Destitution 
of the Imperial Family : Burial of Victims : Esthonian 
Demonstration : Anarchy among Working Classes : 
Grand Duchess Vladimir : Labour Members at Petro- 
grad : Lenin the Agent of Germany : At Yalta : Visit 
to Dowager Empress : Reminiscences of 1914 : Funeral 
of Princess Dolgoruki : Travelling under Guard : In- 
ventories of Possessions : Turmoil in Popular Quarter : 
Terror of the Cossacks : Fighting in the Nevski Pros- 
pekt : Peter-Paul Fortress capitulates : Imperial Family 
in Captivity : Kerenski in Winter Palace : At Kislo- 
vodsk : Departure of Imperial Family : Count Bencken- 
dorff : Princess Irene Yusupov : At Moghilev : Kornilov's 
Bodyguard : Kerenski as Dictator : General Kornilov : 
Requiem Service for Alexander II : Kornilov and 
Kerenski : Failure of Kornilov : Grand Dukes under 
Arrest : Republic Proclaimed : Petrograd without 
Bread pp. 83-210 

APPENDICES : 

I. Petition to the Emperor on behalf of the Grand 
Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, and the Emperor's Reply 
thereto pp. 213-214 

II. Memorandum privately circulated on December 31, 
1916 pp. 215-217 

III. The Police Report of December 30, 1916 pp. 218-222 
INDEX pp. 225-228 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

To face p. 

PORTRAIT OF THE EMPEROR NICOLAS II. BY 
VALENTINE SYEROV Frontispiece 

PETERHOF 12 

THE EMPRESS AND HER TWO ELDER DAUGHTERS, 

OLGA AND TATIANA, AS RED CROSS NURSES 28 

THE TZESAREVICH IN COSSACK UNIFORM 36 

THE GRAND DUCHESS VLADIMIR 44 

FEODOROVSKI SOBOR, THE EMPEROR'S CHURCH AT 

TSARSKOE SELO 48 

THE GRAND DUKE DMITRI PAVLOVICH 74 

THE EMPRESS ALEXANDRA FEODOROVNA 94 

PRINCE FELIX YUSUPOV 168 

THE IMPERIAL FAMILY 186 



Xlll 



THE RUSSIAN DIARY 
OF AN ENGLISHMAN 



The Imperial Family of 

ROMANOV 



Emperor 
Alexander II 



Emperor 
Alexander III 

1845-1894 

m. 1866 

Marie Feodorovna 

b. 1847 

(Princess Dagmar 
of Denmark) 



G. D. 
Constantin 

1827-1892 



G.D. 


G.D. 


G.D. 


G. D. G. D. 


G.D. 


Vladimir 


Marie 


Serge 


Paul Nicolai 


Olga 


1847-1909 


1853-1900 


1857-1905 


b. 1860 b. 1850 


1851-1915 


m. 1874 
Marie 


m. 1874 

Alfred 


m. 1884 

Elizabeth 


m. 1889 (ist) > 
Alexandra 


m. 1867 
George 


Pavlovna 


Duke of 


Princess 


Princess of | , 


King 


Duchess of 
Mecklenburg 
6.2.5.1854 


Edinburgh 
and Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha 
and had 


of Hesse 


Greec 
1870-1 


e < m. 2na 
j ql (morg.) 
1902 
Olga 


of the 
Hellenes 
and has 
issue 




issue 






Karnovich 












divorced 












wife of 












Pistohlkors 












Princess 












Palei 









Emperor 

Nicolai II 

1868-1918 

m. 1894 
Alexandra 

Feodorovna 

(Princess Alix 

of Hesse) 

1872-1918 



G.D. 

Xenie 

b. 1875 

m. 1894 

Grand Duke 

Alexander 

Michailovich 



G. D. 

Michail 

b. 1878 
m. 1911 (morg.) 

Nathalie 

Scheremetersky 

Comtesse Brassbv 

(divorced wife 
of von Woulfert) 



ok 

Olga 

b. 1882 

m. 1901 

Duke of 

Oldenburg 



G. D. 

Kyrill 

b. 1876 

m. 1905 

Victoria 

Princess of 

Saxe-Coburg 

and Gotha 

(divorced wife 

of Grand Duke 

of Hesse) 



G. D. 
Boris 

b. 1877 



G.D. 

Olga 

1895-1918 



G.D. 

Tatiana 

1897-1918 



G.D. 

Marie 
1899-1918 



G.D. 

Anastasie 

1901-1918 



Kniperor 

Nicolai I 

1796-1855 

succeeded 

1825 

m. Charlotte 
of Pnissia 

I 



D. 

n- 
itin 

858 

ind 
ssue 



G.D. 

Nicolai 

1831-1891 

w. Alex Petrovna 

Duchess of Oldenburg 

~l V" ! 

G. D. G. D. G. D. 

Dmitri Nicolai Peter 

ft. 1860 6. 1856 m. and 
Com. -in- has issue 

Chief 
till Sept. 

1915 
m. 1907 
Princess 
Anastasie 
of Monte- 
negro, 
divorced 
1906 from 
Romanovsky 



G.D. 
Michail 

1832-1909 
m. a princess of Baden 



G. D. G. D. G. D. 

Nicolai Anastasie Michail 

b. 1859 b. 1860 b. 1861 



D. 

ire 

879 



Helene 

b. 1882 
m. 1902 
Prince 
Nicolas 
of Greece 



Marie 

b. 1890 

m. 1908 

William 

Duke of 

Sudermanie 

(marriage 

dissolved) 



oo. o. D . 
George Alexander 

fc. 1863 b. 1866 

m. and m. 1894 
has Grand Duchess 
issue Xenia 

Alexandrovna 



G.D. 
Serge 

b. 1869 



G.D. Six H.H. Prince 

Dmitri children i ren e m. 1914 Felix 

b. 1891 Alexandrovna Yusupov 

Princess of (son of Prince 
Russia Felix Yusupov). 

b. 1895 b. 1887 



G.D. 
Alexei 

Tzesarevich) 
1904-1918 



H.H. 

Marie 

b. 1907 



H'H. 
Kira 
b. 1909 



TO 

THE COUNTESS BETSY SCHUVAIyOV 

WHO ADVISED ME TO PUBLISH MY DIARY 

THIS BOOK 
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 



THE RUSSIAN DIARY OF AN 
ENGLISHMAN 

INTRODUCTION 

A the date when this Diary opens the Great 
European War had been raging for just 
upon a twelvemonth. But for Russia there 
were perils within as well as without. Those who had 
eyes to see knew that the long-drawn drama of the 
Tsardom was swiftly approaching its climax. The 
Diarist's notes reflect the shifting moods of hope, 
of levity, of doubt, of foreboding, by which in turn 
the public mind was swayed, and vividly reveal 
the ever-downward course of events towards the 
destined abyss of dissolution. The situation, as 
he sadly says, is always " going from worse to 
worst " ; he sees the whole social fabric already 
menaced with annihilation, and he quits Russia at 
the moment when the Bolshevik volcano is boiling 
up to its fiery finale. 

The political system of Russia was once aptly 
described as Absolutism tempered by Assassination. 
Several of the earlier Romanovs died violent deaths ; 
while of the three latest Emperors two have been 
murdered, the third escaping a like fate more often 
and more narrowly than the world ever knew. The 

1 A 



2 RUSSIAN DIARY 

fight between Autocracy and Assassination has been 
long and obstinate. From the time of the fourth 
Romanov ruler, Peter the Great, down to the very 
end of the dynasty a period of two hundred years 
Prussian influence dominated the Court and 
Government of Petrograd, the absolutist regime in 
Russia borrowing its distinctive colour from that 
Prussian variety of which Frederick the Great and 
his grim father are the typical representatives. 
For the last century and a half every Russian 
Emperor, without exception, has married a German 
wife ; in each generation the spirit of Prussianism 
has been reinforced by the introduction of a fresh 
German princess to become the spouse of one 
Emperor and the parent of another. German 
female ambition, soaring higher still, actually 
captured supreme power when in 1762 Paul Ill's 
widow, a princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, became Auto- 
crat of All the Russias as the Empress Catherine II. 
To exhibit the bearing on recent events of that 
weird episode in Muscovite history as a cherished 
tradition and a possible exemplar is to shed light 
on some of the most suggestive passages in the 
Diary before us. 

The ten years anterior to 1915 witnessed an 
unceasing struggle for the mastery between the old 
Absolutism and various movements for liberalising 
the form of government. In 1905 the Russian 
hereditary monarchy professed itself " constitu- 
tional," but the regime remained in practice largely 
autocratic. The Duma of August 1905 was a purely 
consultative body to which, however, under a new 



INTRODUCTION 3 

law of October, was accorded legislative power ; 
an upper House being fashioned out of the old 
Council of the Empire. That first Duma was 
dissolved in 1906, its successor in 1907 ; the next 
lived till 1912, and the fourth proved to be the 
last. Throughout this whole period the Emperor's 
best advisers were advocating concessions in the 
interests alike of the people and of the Throne 
itself ; while the Germanophil party, in alliance 
with the Empress, offered uncompromising resis- 
tance to every measure for limiting autocratic 
power. 

That the Revolution in its " Red " form was 
bound to arrive sooner or later is a highly probable 
speculation ; but the immediate cause of the revolt 
that overwhelmed the Monarchy was the unbounded 
control established by a resolute woman over a 
husband whose will, weak by nature, had been 
it is said further enfeebled by habits of intem- 
perance. It was a deepening of the tragedy that 
the Empress, in whose hands the Emperor was as 
wax, should in later years have been under the 
spell of the monk Rasputin an ignorant, unscrupu- 
lous bigot who, perhaps correctly, identified the 
temporal prosperity of the Russian Church with 
the maintenance of Autocracy. 

The sufferings and tragic end of this poor lady 
may well stay the pen of hostile criticism, but the 
unravelling of the facts about her will do something 
to relieve her memory of at least a part of the 
obloquy cast upon it. 

Whatever the nature and degree of Rasputin's 



4 RUSSIAN DIARY 

criminality, the popularly accepted legends of the 
crafty monk's relations with the credulous Empress 
have not been endorsed by the Diarist or any other 
competent observer. Her agonising anxiety for the 
health of the Tzesarevich rendered her the easier 
prey to the impostor's pretensions as a miracle- 
worker. That she was a traitor to Russia is an 
allegation devoid of proof or probability. Her 
attitude was not anti-Entente but anti-Duma. The 
key to her whole policy was not pro-German 
sympathy, but a consuming determination to set 
her son on the throne of his father, with uncurtailed 
prerogatives and with herself as Regent that is, 
as acting Sovereign. Her ambition was to play the 
role of Catherine II, believing that in no other way 
could the Throne, unshorn of its absolute power, 
be safeguarded for her idolised boy. 

Towards the end of 1916 the course cf events 
served to crystallise her purpose. Yielding not 
only to the urgent representations of the most dis- 
tinguished and trustworthy of his own entourage, 
but to the earnest counsels of august kinsmen whose 
personal experience of constitutional kingship lent 
weight to their words, the Emperor Nicolas decided 
to grant his people a real Constitution of the 
Western type. To effect this object he com- 
manded Prince Lvov to get together a Ministry 
and to formulate a scheme which should be pro- 
claimed on the Emperor's name-day, the Feast of 
St. Nicolas, December 6. 

The Empress, hypnotised by Rasputin, vas 
furious, and at once worked her best and hardest to 



INTRODUCTION 5 

defeat her husband's intention. She had already 
brought about the removal of the Grand Duke 
Nicolas from the supreme military command, and 
now as the Diarist shows she compassed the exile 
from the Court and the capital of certain members 
of the Imperial family whose influence was to be 
dreaded as opposed to her own. Her irresistible 
power over the Emperor induced him to withdraw 
his scheme of Constitutional Reform. In December 
Rasputin is said, while in his cups, to have revealed 
to the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich and Prince 
Felix Yusupov the Empress's fixed intention, early 
in January 1917^0 launch a coup d'etat to dethrone 
the Emperor on the plea of his weak health, and 
herself to assume the reins of Government in the 
name and on behalf of her son. 

The Diarist, in the only authentic record yet 
made known, describes the promptitude with which 
Rasputin's enemies took action to save the country ; 
the " removal " of Rasputin just before Christmas ; 
the grief and rage of the Empress, and the arrest 
and exile, on her illegal personal order, of the Grand 
Duke and Prince an invasion of their immemorial 
privilege which aroused the resentment and concern 
of the Imperial family. In these Notes the writer 
relates how the Emperor, having alienated the 
sympathies of his own family, fell more hopelessly 
than ever under his wife's control, and how the 
very statesmen to whom he had entrusted the 
framing and enactment of the new Constitu- 
tional Law became convinced at last of the 
necessity of demanding their Sovereign's abdica- 



6 RUSSIAN DIARY 

tion and of constituting themselves a Provisional 
Government. 

The change of regime was carried out on March 12, 
the intention of Prince Lvov's Government being 
to accept the Grand Duke Michail Alexandrovich 
as Regent of the Empire. By May 5 the ruling 
junta had been reorganised on a republican basis, 
and on August 6 was displaced by a new combina- 
tion under Alexander Kerenski. The intimate 
personal reminiscences of the Diarist, gathered 
during the Kerenski dictatorship, make their own 
appeal to readers who are fascinated by the details 
of its unhappy combination of pretentious incom- 
petence and personal cowardice. After a couple of 
months the Kerenski Government on October 8 
had to submit to a drastic " reorganisation," and 
for a month longer was allowed to play at wielding 
power. This flimsy pretence was brushed aside on 
November 10, when a Military Revolutionary Com- 
mittee set up as the supreme authority the " All 
Russian Congress of the Committees of Workers, 
Soldiers, and Peasants." 

For these developments, however, the Diarist 
did not wait, having left Petrograd on September 16. 
The Diarist's descriptions of his remarkable inter- 
view with the Emperor, reported at the time to 
His Majesty's royal relatives in England ; of the 
killing of Rasputin, received by the author from 
the perpetrator's own lips ; the text of the Petition 
on behalf of the Grand Duke Dmitri addressed 
by his near relatives to the Emperor, with His 
Majesty's reply ; the account given to the Diarist 



INTRODUCTION 7 

by the Emperor Alexander's own daughter-in-law of 
the circumstances of his end; and the narrative 
of the Author's personal experiences during the 
Revolution of 1917 are the outstanding features 
of a book whose very informality conveys a sense 
of freshness and truth which a more conventional 
work might fail to produce. 



NINETEEN FIFTEEN 



NINETEEN FIFTEEN 

The Diary and Letters of which this book consists are 
given in chronological order. The letters D. and 
L. in margin signify Diary and Letter. The blank 
spaces indicate the Author's absence from Petrograd. 

PETROGRAD. Arrived at 11 p.m. Drove to 1915 
Hotel de PEurope and was given the same r^j 1 ^' D 
room, No. 157, I occupied in March 1914. 

At luncheon yesterday at the Embassy met Wednesday, 
Colonel C. B. Thomson, our Military Attache from July 2I ' D ' 
Bucarest, whom I had not seen since the autumn 
of 1914 in Paris. Took him to Tsarskoe Selo ; 
luncheon with the Grand Duchess Vladimir in a 
tent in her garden, where all her meals are served 
in the summer. She came back from a regimental 
ceremony at the parish church. The crowd was 
so great that she could not get her carriage and 
the Emperor sent her home. 

RAPTI. Arrived 4.30 a.m. by automobile with Sunday, 
Polovtsov at his country house,* a large building ^ uly 25 ' D * 
in Louis-Quinze style, with terraces of formal 
gardens overlooking an immense dark lake com- 
pletely encircled by woods to the water's edge. 
Full of beautiful things, and its hot-houses and 
conservatories famous. 

* Destroyed in the winter of 1917-18. 
ii 



12 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 PETROGRAD. Dined with Grand Duchess Vladi- 

July 26.' D. m i r at Tsars koe. Motored back to Petrograd with 

the Ambassador and Lady Georgina. 

Wednesday, H.E. and Lady Georgina and Miss Meriel dined 
with me on the roof of my hotel. Lovely night, 
no wind. My friends the swifts, whistling through 
the air, reminded me of their relatives in Venice. 
A few aeroplanes. 

Thursday, Motored with Princess Orlov * and Countess 
Ju y 29. D. jj^lene Potocki t to Strelna, the Orlov house, given 
by the Emperor Nicolas I to the family and 
arranged in the pseudo-Gothic of that time. Held 
up at the railway crossing by a train from Vladi- 
vostok of forty wagons, laden with automobiles. 
Countess Helene's two sons, whom I had known 
since childhood, came over from the Cadet School 
of Krasnoe Selo. 

Wednesday, To Tsarskoe Selo to visit the Grand Duchess on 
^g- 4- D. her f gte ^j ul ^ . 22? Q g ^ s> Mary Mag dalen). 

Brought her tuberoses and found her at tea with 
several ladies and Sazonov, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, whom I had met at dinner at the Embassy 
in 1914. He questioned me at some length about 
England and France. 

Thursday, Polovtsov motored me and Cunard of the 

ug ' 5 ' " Embassy to Peterhof just before 9 p.m., too late 

to visit the palace, but the fountains were playing. 

Overwhelmed by the transcendent beauty of the 

place, the fountains, and the view across the sea. 

* Nee Princess Belosselski-Belozerski, m. Prince Vladimir 
Nicolaievich Qrlov. 

| Nee Princess Radziwill, m. Count Joseph Potocki. 




PETERHOF 




PETERHOF 



PETROGRAD 13 

Strolled through the alleys to " Mon Plaisir," 
built by Peter the Great on the edge of the sea, 
where the Empress Catherine II and her two 
little grandsons (afterwards Alexander I and 
Nicolas I) spent so many happy days. We sat 
on the terrace in front and saw the sun set 
the sky a blaze of scarlet, crimson, and yellow, 



1915 




like a Turner ; and the Kronstadt dome silhouetted 
against this furious scheme of colour. The moon 
rose behind distant Petrograd. A night of 
nights ! 

PETERHOF. Riga evacuated the Germans in Sunday, 
Warsaw ! Returned last night to Peterhof, and Aug< S ' Dm 
this morning was shown over the palace by the 
intendant. Met friends later and went over the 
palace a second time. In the evening visited all 
the fountains separately. Dined at 10.30 and 
motored back to Petrograd. A white and silver 
night. 



H RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 Arrived at Moscow. In the afternoon motored 

to Kamenskoe, the Tsar's falconry delightful and 
original where Peter the Great retired after the 
massacre of the Streltzi.* At the back of the 
massive building is a stone throne on a wide 
balcony dominating the plain and river below, 
where the Tsars sat to w r atch the falcons at 
work. It has not been used since the Tsars 
became Emperors, 1695, but is being carefully 
restored. 

From there we went to visit Catherine IPs 
Gothic palace, begun 1775, but never finished. 
Was much struck by a tall birch-tree growing out 
of the masonry at the top of the roofless wall. 
Then on to tea at Sparrow Hill, and looked down 
on the view of Moscow Napoleon saw in 1812. 
After dinner drove round the town. 

Friday, Moscow. Visited the Kremlin churches yester- 

u g- J 3- d aV) and to-day the Treasury and Museum. In 
the afternoon to Archangelskoe, 25 versts from 
Moscow, the country house of the Yusupovs, 
which Felix Yusupov had shown me in 1909.! 
The place is all ready for them now and is beauti- 
> fully kept, with some fine things, including four 

examples of Hubert Robert ; the terraced garden 
full of statues and ablaze with flowers. They are 
building a church the Kasan Church in small 
where the eldest son (killed in a duel) is to be buried. 
My hosts, the Olives, were leaving for Charkov ; 

* Peter, recalled from England by a conspiracy of the 
Streltzi, caused 2000 to be tortured and slain, beheading 
many with his own hand. 

f Prince Felix Felixovich, Count Sumarokov-Elston. 



MOSCOW 15 

drove to the station to see them off. Am enjoying 1915 
myself immensely. 

Moscow. I am writing to you from the Olives' Saturday, 
house, and when I lift my eyes I look on the Aug< I4 * L ' 
Kremlin from where I sit. All the bells are ringing. 
My friend Madame Olive was the daughter of the 
principal Christian sugar-refiner in Russia, who died 
lately. She dresses beautifully, has a wonderful 
taste in objets d'art, and is most intelligent. Her 
husband is A.D.C. to Prince Yusupov, Governor of 
Moscow, and father of Felix. Her sister is Princess 
Michael Gorchakov. I came with them on Wednes- 
day night, and go back to-morrow. The house is 
most comfortable, and my bath is as big as the 
Caspian Sea. I am waited on by a Cossack, who 
makes me repeat my Russian words until I say 
them right. 

All Moscow is making munitions. There is a 
large palace with a beautiful garden, built by 
Catherine II for Gregoire Orlov, which belongs to 
the Emperor and which he will come to live in 
if the Tsarskoe has to be abandoned. The Bond 
Street of Moscow was nearly burnt down at the 
beginning of the war. Many shops in it are still 
boarded up. Every German-named shop was 
gutted. Whilst the wine-shops were being looted 
the police came along and had them closed and 
sealed up, leaving in many cases a large number 
of the rioters dead drunk inside, who at the end of 
the war will be found like brandy-cherries ! 

News from Poland very bad. Returning last Thursday, 
night from dining with the Grand Duchess Vladimir ug * I9 ' D ' 



i6 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



1915 



Friday, 
Aug. 20. L. 



Aug. 22. L. 
to Lady 
Sarah Wil- 
son, Allied 
Forces 
Hospital, 
Boulogne. 



met Countess Betsy Schuvalov* in the train. Dined 
to-day at the Embassy to meet the former French 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. Crupi, and his wife, 
and General Hanbury Williams, head of the 
English Military Mission at G.H.Q. He is not 
very cheerful about the Western Front. 

PETROGRAD. Things at the Front are going from 
worse to worst. What is to keep the enemy away 
from here ? Really the West might help us ! 
God only knows if you will ever get this, as the 
Germans stop nearly every home-bound steamer. 

The Embassies will go to Nijni Novgorod, not 
Moscow. I shall go to Moscow, as I can stay with 
my friends the Olives ; but the danger is that the 
German Fleet may come here. No one has ever 
known why it didn't come at the beginning of the 
it was the great German mistake. How 



war 



lucky for you England is an island ! I don't think 
the English are half grateful enough for it. 

We have been going through here exactly the 
same emotions as you and I went through together 
last year in Paris and Boulogne. I never thought 
such an experience could happen twice in one's life. 
We all expect the Germans here sooner or later. 
Till Riga falls no one will know whether their 
objectif is Petrograd or Moscow ; if Petrograd, 
their Fleet could co-operate with them. The major 
part of the artillery and munition factories are here. 

On the other hand, it is calculated that it would 
take them six weeks to get here, and the winter 

* Nee Princess Bariatinski, m. Count Paul Petrovich 
Schuvalov. 



THE HERMITAGE PICTURES 17 

usually begins in about six weeks' time. The snow 1915 
that made Napoleon pack up next morning fell on 
October 12. Pray God it may be an early winter ! 

If they do come here, will there be a revolution ? 
The fear is the people might rise and make peace 
to stop the German advance, feeling that the 
Romanovs have had their chance and been found 
wanting. 

The Emperor has forbidden the Hermitage 
pictures which are his personal property to be 
sent away, for fear it should cause a panic. They 
wanted to put a hospital in the Hermitage. That 
would have given a pretext for packing up, but it 
could not be arranged, as there is no water-supply. 
So the Emperor has given the Winter Palace 
instead. It can hold 1200 beds. The archives 
are being packed. The Crown jewels, the small 
objets d'art, and all the valuable Imperial plate 
from here and Warsaw have gone to Moscow to 
the Kremlin. 

The Ambassador is adored here and most highly 
thought of. I don't know what would have 
happened if there had been a fool or malingerer 
in his place. He, Sazonov, and the Emperor 
work as one man. I_see_all the interesting people 
and constantly dine at Tsarskoe with our dear 
Grand Duchess : I telephone and propose myself. 
She spoke of you the other day most kindly and 
sympathetically. I told her all the news I had of 
you. I notice they live entirely on the small 
successes and repulses, and have never yet faced 
the greater question. 

B 



1 8 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 There are but few people in Petrograd, and life 

is much the same as in London small coteries of 
intimate friends. 

The Grand Duke Boris has been back from the 
Front for a few days : his Hussar regiment is rest- 
ing. He gave me heart-rending accounts of the 
retreat ; of the Russians burning their own villages ; 
of the ripe, unreaped corn ablaze ; and of the 
despairing sorrow of the country people poor 
things ! He told me how the Russians send aero- 
planes into Germany to drop incendiary bombs on 
the standing crops, and how the Germans harness 
the Russian prisoners to their ploughs and flog 
them whether they pull or not. 

The Stieglitz Museum * is being stealthily packed 
up for removal. It will indeed be a tragedy if the 
enemy comes here, with all the factories and 
" powderies " and " cannonries." At Riga there 
is sixty million pounds' worth of timber, and more 
than double that value here. 

Monday, During dinner at Tsarskoe much excitement over 

Aug. 23. D. re p 0rtec l f a n O f Dardanelles, contradicted later in the 
evening by telephone from the Emperor's palace. 
On my arrival at Petrograd great crowd outside 
the Novoe Vremya office, waiting for verification. 
Saturday, From what I can gather, it is likely the Grand 
Aug. 28. L. j) u ke Nicolai Nicolaievich may be relieved of the 
Command-in-Chief. In that case, would the Em- 
peror take over the Supreme Command in person ? 
Then Alexeiev, in whom every one has confidence, 
might be Chief-of-the-Staff ; Nicolai Nicolaievich 
* Baron Stieglitz's School of Design. 



FOREBODINGS IN THE CAPITAL 19 

would perhaps take command of the Southern 1915 
Army, and Russki retain the Northern. The 
entire Staff it would seem are to be either 
changed or hanged. Poor Emperor, all would now 
fall on his shoulders. If he should have no luck, 
God only knows what will happen. 

The Council of Ministers says the Germans 
cannot reach Petrograd this winter, but might be 
able to winter at Pskov. What an admission ! 

Any news that comes to me from the Embassy 
and they are most kind consists only of the 
official Russian bulletins which appear later in the 
Press ; so I have taken other steps to keep myself 
informed. 

If one is more cheerful for the moment, it is not 
because things are better, but because human 
nature can only stand a certain amount, and then 
revolts. It's terrible, the bungling inefficiency of 
the Staff. The soldiers are beyond all praise. 

Things are not at all quiet here. Munition- 
workers on strike and even some passers-by shot. 
My poor little cabman was shot by mistake as he 
was going down the street. Forty-two killed, and 
five minutes after everybody at work ! 

On Saturday I motored with Polovtsov to Aug. 30. L. 
Gatchina to lunch with Madame Derfelden (Serge Marchioness 
Zubov's former wife), who has an aunt living in the of Ripon. 
palace. We went to see her and found her drinking 
tea with raspberry jam in it. She is the Countess 
Heyden and a former visitor of yours at Studley. 
We went all over the palace and saw the Emperor 
Paul's rooms, which are entered by a secret staircase 



20 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 and are left exactly as when he lived there, with his 
boots all ready to put on. There are wonderful 
works of art in Gatchina. 

Afterwards we motored to near Pavlovsk to see 
an old house. " Pol " motored Madame Derfelden 
back to Gatchina, and I took the train to Tsarskoe 
for Petrograd. Travelled up with Wolkonsky, 
former Secretary of Legation in London. 

You positively must come in the summer to see 
Peterhof before you die. To me it is the most 
entrancing place in the world : I have never seen 
anything like it. It has in its way as much charm 
as Venice it is fairyland with a soul it is divine. 
Yet already the birch-trees have yellow leaves, 
though there has been no rain and the weather is 
heavenly. 

The summer here is like a lovely woman, pale- 
faced, with scarlet lips and wild, appealing, black 
eyes. Each year she is born perfect you feel that 
so divine a creature must live for ever ; and then, 
before you can possess yourself of her or even 
before you have realized her beauty, her intenseness, 
her vivid colouring she is dead in your arms ! 
It is all too quick. 

Sept. i. L. I was at the British Colony Hospital yesterday ; 
out of the eighty-two wounded there over forty are 
on crutches, shot in the legs during the retreat. A 
Cossack was playing his guitar in the garden, and 
there were nine legs listening, with eighteen brains ! 
To my favourites I take presents, and from time to 
time give them all cigarettes so that there may be 
no jealousy or else 2O-kopek icons of St. George. 



KARSAVINA 21 

I have been much worried with my ear, whicn 1915 
has depressed me. I decided to go to a doctor, ep ' 3< 
and Karsavina* most kindly accompanied me as 
interpreter. We had to wait an hour, and then, 
while she held my hand, the doctor shoved things 
through my nose ! However, he was most re- 
assuring, and I already feel better. It was good 
of her, and I am much touched. 

Such things have happened ! OnJFriday I. was Sunday, 
invited to be at the Vladimir Palace at six, to motor Sept> 5 * L ' 
down to Tsarskoe with the Grand Duchess Vladimir. 
Exactly at six I was there dressed. I found M. 
Faberge, the famous Court jeweller, who had been 
waiting since half-past five. She who is never 
unpunctual only came in at a quarter to seven, 
full of apologies and looking very worried, and told 
me she had been sitting with the Empress-Mother. 
During the hour's drive she spoke not a word. 
We sat down to dinner thirty-five minutes late 
no Romanov has ever been known to be late for 
dinner. 

I was eating my lukewarm potage St.-Germain, 
when she said to me, " The Emperor and Empress 
have been to-day to the fortress to pray at his 
father's tomb." I had met them this afternoon in 
the Nevski. Then she added, " The Emperor 
leaves to-morrow night to take over the Supreme 
Command at the Front. Nicolai Nicolaievich goes 
to the Caucasus. Alexeiev is Chief of the Staff. 
Russki has the Northern Command. The Empress 

* Tamara Platonovna Karsavina, premise danseuse in the 
ballet. 



22 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 Marie is desesperee. It is quite disastrous." We 
both cried into our soup mine, at least, was 
warmed up by my tears. Everybody during dinner 
was much depressed by this news. 

When I got back I immediately sent all this 
information to the Ambassador, thinking he might 
not have heard of the change of Command, and 
as a matter of fact he hadn't. I think for a newly 
arrived foreigner I may feel proud supplying 
my Embassy with such news ! The Ambassador 
thanked me very much. 

Yesterday was glorious. I went to the Admiralty 
and walked back by the Winter Palace. At that 
moment the Emperor, the Empress, and the dear 
little boy motored out of the palace, where there 
had been a Council of State, and the little boy was 
presented to them all en bloc. Neither the tram 
service nor other street traffic is ever stopped for 
the Emperor. He takes his chance like all of us ! * 

I was lunching on the roof of the hotel with 
Karsavina, when in walked the Grand Duke Dmitri 
Pavlovich ! Forty-eight hours' leave and found 
time to come and see me ! We spent the whole 
afternoon together. First I went all over his 
palace. He has arranged his own rooms on the 
ground floor, and most originally each room in a 
different wood. The dining-room is amaranth. 
Then we had tea ; we talked about you and other 
friends, then we cried, then we went shopping in a 
60 h.p. Renaud ; then we pursued any pretty ladies 
driving, then in the most divine weather we tore 

* This is in contrast with Kerenski's habit ; see Aug. 25, 1917 



IQI5 



PALACE OF THE GRAND DUKE DMITRI 23 

up and down the quays and over the bridges ; 
then he deposited me at the hotel at 6.30. This 
morning he fetches me at 10.30 to motor to Tsarskoe, 
and this eyening he goes back to the Front. 

To Tsarskoe with Grand Duke Dmitri. Visited Sunday, 
the Emperor's church. Back to Petrograd in Sept 5 ' Dm 




afternoon and left note at Embassy to ask Lady 
Georgina if he might dine there ; she telephoned 
later inviting him. He fetched me in his motor 
and drove me to the Embassy. Left at 10 for 
his palace, and saw him off by train at 1 1 p.m. 

In the morning to Tsarskoe to the Grand Duchess Monday, 
yia^irmr.^ At the door met Princess Orlov, who Septl 6 ' D ' 
had just been received by the Grand Duchess to 



24 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 tell her the startling news of the Emperor's dismissal 
of her husband " Vladdy " the truest and most 
devoted of all the Emperor's friends. A sinister 
influence, long felt, now begins to show itself. 

Motored with the Grand Duchess to Oranienbaum, 
where I visited all the palaces and the Montague ; 
Russe (a snow switchback) used by the Empress | 
Elizabeth. At 4 to tea with the Princess of Sa:?fe- I 
Altenburg, who showed me over the " Chinese " 
Palace, where she lives. Everything Chinese of 
that epoch 1750. To Petrograd by train. 
Tuesday, In afternoon with Lady Georgina to King George 

Sept. 7. D. t k e fifth Hospital, in the Nevski, where she gives 
to every outgoing soldier articles of clothing for 
himself, wife, and children. Afterwards to Embassy 
to pick up Ambassador, and so on to the English; 
Colony Hospital, for the same kindly purpose. | j 
Wednesday, Luncheon at the Orlovs' ; long conversation with* 
Sept. 15. D. vi a ddy," who gave me a letter for the Minister 
of the Marine. Afterwards to Countess Carlov, 
widow of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ; 
she kindly telephoned to the Minister of War, who 
was at a Cabinet Council, to make an appointment 
for me. 

Saturday, Yesterday the Secretary of Minister of War 
Sept. 1 8. D. telephoned me to see General Lukomski, the 
Minister having gone to the Front. This morning 
to Admiralty ; then to General Lukomski at the 
War Office. At 6 to the Grand Duchess Vladimir 
and with her to Tsarskoe to dine. 

Monday, To Warsaw Station for the blessing, by Orthodox 

Sept. 20. D. c i er g V) O f tne soup-kitchen for Polish refugees. 



INTERVIEW WITH SAZONOV 25 

The Ambassador and Lady Georgina with several 1915 
of the Embassy Staff were there. This kitchen 
has been opened with money collected in England, 
and has been entirely run by the ladies of the 
English Colony, who work there in relays every 
day. 

After dinner at the Embassy last night had a Thursday, 
long talk with Sazonov,* who promised to telephone Sept * 23 ' Df 
to the War Office in the morning. At noon he 
telephoned me that the Minister of War would see 
me at 2. I went to his official residence on the 
Moika Canal, some little distance from the War 
Office. His aide-de-camp talks perfect English. 
Met in the antechamber Stanley Washburn, the 
American correspondent, who entertained me while 
we were waiting with amusing stories from the 
Front. I explained my business to the Minister, 
who took me by the arm and walked me up and 
down the room while we talked for twenty-two 
minutes. Met Sazonov again at dinner, and was 
able to thank him for his great kindness. 

Yesterday General Lukomski telephoned for me Saturday, 
to come and see him, which I did. With Ambassa- Sept * 25 ' D ' 
dor and Lady Georgina motored to dine at Tsarskoe, 
where I am staying. As I felt seedy last night 
the Grand Duchess sent me to bed. Came down 
for luncheon all right. At dinner we are always 
about twenty, with guests and her Court. 

TSARSKOE. In morning to Feodorovski Church. Sunday, 
Afternoon drove through Pavlovsk Park. At 5 Sept ' 26 ' Dm 
tea with Grand Duchess. At 6.30 to the Church 
* Serge Sazonov, Foreign Minister, b. 1881. 



26 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



1915 



Monday, 
Sept. 27. D. 



Saturday, 
Oct. 2. D. 



Sunday, 
Oct. 3. D. 



for Vespers of the Exaltation of the Cross, the most 
impressive ceremony I have ever seen. Afterwards 
the Empress, the little boy, and the Grand Duchesses 
kissed the Cross. Few people in church only 
Cossacks. 

TSARSKOE. Walked round the lake to see the 
bridge, of which there is a copy in Lord Pembroke's 
park at Wilton. At tea with Grand Duchess 
Vladimir ; Countess Helene Potocki and Princess 
Orlov came in. Count and Countess Paul Bencken- 
dorff dined. He is Marechal of the Imperial Court 
and brother of the Russian Ambassador at the Court 
of St. James's. At night to Petrograd by train. 

At Warsaw Station joined Lady Georgina in the 
" bath train," which she had so cleverly managed 
to secure from the station-master. These trains go 
down to the Front for the use of the soldiers who 
are resting. Each train consists of a number of 
carriages fitted with vapour baths and drying- 
rooms. 

I washed six refugee children yesterday very 
dirty two howled. The washing of the children 
is in connection with the maternity home for 
Polish refugees organised by the English colony, 
with Her Excellency as President, under whose 
good guidance they have risen wonderfully to the 
occasion. 

Luncheon at the Orlovs' ; dinner at the French 
Embassy. 

To Tsarskoe and straight to Mita BenckendorfFs 
apartments, where I found Prince Michael Putiatin. 
He had brought me a ticket for the Emperor's 



THE EMPRESS'S HOSPITAL 27 

Feodorovski Church that makes me a parishioner, 1915 
and entitles me to attend services there. He also 
brought me a splendidly printed and illustrated 
book descriptive of the church, and a set of new 
photographs of the Imperial family. To church 
with him ; the Emperor was there. In the middle 
of the service the Tzesarevich came running in. 
After the Emperor and Empress had kissed the 
Cross, the dear little boy did the same, and took 
up his usual place near the Emperor's chair to 
watch the Cossacks kiss the Cross. While they 
were doing so he winked at his friends among the 
soldiers. He was greatly surprised at my turning 
up in the middle of them. 

After the service 1^ left Prince Putiatin at his 
house, and went on to luncheon with the Grand 
Duchess Vladimir, and sat next Grand Duke Boris, 
who, as always, was charming. After luncheon 
danced with the little Kyrill Princesses, and 
at 2 with Mita to visit the Empress's Officers' 
Hospital. 

Personally I know nothing against the Empress, 
but there is a lot of injurious political intrigue 
going on around her. In her hospital I went to 
see an officer of eighteen, nephew of Kokovtsov, 
former Minister of Finance, who, though badly 
wounded, is delightfully gay and full of con- 
versation. He sketches cleverly and draws carica- 
tures of the nurses and staff all as birds. I 
advised him to draw the Empress as one of the 
eight-winged seraphim ! His case is one of those 
she attends herself, and both she and the two 



28 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 elder Grand Duchesses were very busily at work 
while I was there. 

At the hospital Colonel Schahovskoi, who had 
been told off to take me round, said a train of 
wounded had just arrived ; we hurried off to the 
Pavilion Station the Emperor's private station 
and went all through the train, and so back to the 
hospital. Amongst the officers was one who had 
four St. George's Crosses and had been promoted 
from the ranks. Then to the hospital crypt church, 
which is arranged in the style of Byzantine churches 
* before the sixth century. 

Next we visited the Town Hospital for Soldiers, 
where I gave away 3000 cigarettes. At each ward 
Colonel Schahovskoi called out, " Your English 
brother brings you these ! " The soldiers all 
shouted together, " Most humbly we thank him," 
at the top of their voices. To one poor man looking 
very ill I gave a packet. With beautiful manners he 
said, " Thank you," and then turned over and died ! 
At about 4 we motored to Princess Putiatin's 
Hospital for Officers, where the Empress was to 
give certificates to the nurses in the chapel. I went 
into the gallery. The Empress came with her two 
eldest daughters, all three in nurses' costume. 
She was amiable and smiling. After going over 
the hospital I got back to the Grand Duchess's for 
tea at 5 o'clock more dead than alive ! I spent 
an hour with her, while she read me a most in- 
teresting letter just received from the Duchess of 
Coburg. Took the 10 o'clock train to Petrograd 
and so to bed by midnight. 




THE EMPRESS AND HER TWO ELDER DAUGHTERS, 
OLGA AND TATIANA, AS RED CROSS NURSES 



CHURCH AT TSARSKOE SELO 29 

Yesterday to Warsaw Station to wash more ^ 1915 
refugee children. In the afternoon fetched caviare Qct"^.* 3 !). 
for Lord Kitchener and took it to the Embassy 
to be forwarded. After luncheon at the Embassy 
to-day went with H.E. and Lady Georgina to 
inspect Strogonov Palace, which has been suggested 
for the Anglo-Russian Hospital. Polovtsov took 
me over Smolny Institute. 

Again to Warsaw Station to wash children. At Saturday, 
hotel door a child Cossack wanted to come with 
me, so took him. We were photographed by the 
English fadre. Left for Tsarskoe, arriving in 
time for tea with Grand Duchess Vladimir. Grand 
Dukes Kyrill and Boris dined. 

TSARSKOE SELO. To the Emperor's church, Sunday, 
where he and all his family were at the service. Oct< I0 * D ' 
The eldest daughter always sits next to him. 
The little boy was a sailor to-day ; he only wears 
Cossack uniform when papa is at the Front. I was 
brought a holy loaf like those given to them. 
After the service the Cossacks formed up outside 
the church and shouted when they left. Then to 
the Empress's Hospital to see my officer friend. 
Joseph Potocki came to tea ; the Grand Dukes 
Kyrill and Andre dined. 

Left Tsarskoe for Petrograd. Luncheon with Monday, 
General Hanbury- Williams, who dined with me at 
my hotel. 

To Tsarskoe Selo to see the wounded officers in Sunday, 
the Empress's Hospital. Tea with Grand Duchess Oct * I7 ' D ' 
Vladimir just back from the Front. She told me 
she had received General d'Amade, who fears the 



30 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 Germans may occupy Constantinople before we 
can ; once there, they could only be got rid of 
with great difficulty. She also told me she found 
the Emperor who had been to see her quite a 
changed man, and with quite a different face. 
He now, for the first time in his life, knows every- 
thing, and hears the truth direct. Nicolai Nicolaie- 
vich never wanted to know anything, and of what 
he did know he only told the Emperor so little 
that it was hardly worth his hearing. All her three 
sons dined. Back in Petrograd in time for ballet 
at 10.45. 

Tuesday, Yesterday luncheon at Sazonov's. This morning 

Oct. 19. D. to t k e new ]y[ OS q ue . packed with soldiers for the 

Kourban Festival. The Mosque is opposite the 

Embassy on the other side of the Neva, close to 

the Peter-Paul Fortress. Its blue domes are a 

marked feature in any view of Petrograd. 

Thursday, Am seeing a great deal of Olga Orlov. Really 

Oct. 21. L .k er j louse j s as n j ce as yours, and the moment 

I cross the threshold I feel less sad. I dine there 
to-night and am sure to pass a pleasant evening. 
We are again thrown into suspense by the tremen- 
dous attack of the Germans on the Riga Front ; 
not that it threatens us as yet in Petrograd, but 
it means an appalling loss of life, and very likely 
our further retreat and the occupation of the Riga 
Bay. 

Rumour says that Sazonov may leave the Foreign 
Office. I don't believe it and sincerely hope he 
will not. 

The Empress goes on October 24 to fetch the 



M. STOLYPIN'S DAUGHTERS 31 

dear little boy from Stavka (G.H.Q.). God forbid 1915 
she should take over command of the Army and 
send the Emperor home ! He comes back on the 
30th. The Grand Duke Paul left with him for the 
first time in uniform since his morganatic marriage. 
He has been reinstated in his former position in the 
Army, and hopes to stay altogether at the Front ; 
but I hear now he may return for good with the 
Emperor. There is a story about one of the 
Alexander Michailovich boys running off to the war. 
I don't know if it's true. 

You know the two Stolypin girls ; they were 
nursing in a lazaret and ran away to the war to 
fight wooden foot * and all dressed as boys with 
their hair cut off. It took weeks to find them, 
but they have been brought home. A little snow 
yesterday. 

The Grand Duchess Vladimir leaves to-night for 
ten days in her ambulance train for Minsk to visit 
her flying hospitals and food depots. She has ten 
concerns in all along the Fronts. Next Sunday 
I shall stay in Petrograd and go to the ballet, 
Don Quicbotte. Last Sunday I returned by 10.30 
from Tsarskoe, and went for the last hour to The 
Sleeping Beauty, with the " Blue Bird " dance we 
have so often applauded in London. 

Both Empresses have received the Anglo-Russian Sunday, 
Hospital Deputation, and yesterday they went to ct * 24 ' L 
the inauguration of the Winter Palace Hospital. 
The Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich has given his 

* On the occasion when Stolypin, the Premier, had his house 
blown up, one of his daughters lost her leg. 



32 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 palace for the Anglo-Russian Hospital. It is 
admirably suited for the purpose, and its position 
in the centre of the Nevski, a corner house opposite 
the Empress Marie's palace, is such that the man 
in the street must see it and know where it is, and 
who gave it. It will be ready for the nurses in 
six weeks. 

Tuesday, Beautiful day on Sunday, so went to Tsarskoe 

and found Grand Duchess Vladimir had returned. 
Luncheon with her after service at the Emperor's 
church. Grand Duke Boris drove me to the 
station to-day. Back to Tsarskoe to dine with 
Grand Duchess, returning near midnight with 
Dmitri Pavlovich. 

Serge Obolenski* came to see me on Sunday night. 
He looks well, a little older and serious. He is an 
officer now, and is splendid in his uniform. I told 
him all I knew about you and the children. The 
war has changed him, as it has all of us. He leaves 
to-night for the Front. He asked after nobody in 
England but you and your mother [Lady Ripon], 
The Emperor came back yesterday ; we are all 
very intrigues and worried to know if Sazonov is 
going to be sent away. I hope to God not, as it 
would not be good either for Russia, England, 
or me. 

I couldn',t go with the Grand Duchess Vladimir 
in her ambulance train to Dvinsk. She kindly 
asked me, but I should have had to be away five 
nights, and I have my affairs to look after. On 
her return she settles in Petrograd ; so there will 
* Prince Serge Alexandrovich Obolenski. 



VISIT TO DVINSK 33 

be no more Tsarskoe : I have enjoyed it so much 1915 
there and I shall miss going, but it's a cold journey 
now. I shall run down to my church on Sunday, 
as the Emperor will be there, and the Cossacks yell 
when he comes out. I like that. 

Yesterday Lydia Kyasht came to luncheon with Sunday, 
me at my hotel. To War Office to see General Nov ' 7 ' D ' 
Lukomski. To-day to Tsarskoe and to church, 
where the Emperor was. My wounded officer 
friend was there. Luncheon with Grand Duchess 
Vladimir. Travelled back with Dmitri Pavlovich 
to Petrograd. 

The Grand Duchess telegraphed me to meet her Monday, 
last Monday at the Warsaw Station on her return Nov * I5 ' L 
from Dvinsk at 8 a.m. General Hartung took me 
to the station, and I saw the Grand Duchess and 
went over all the train, saw it unpacked, and visited 
everything. Then she said, " If you will come 
back at 12 with your bag, I will take you with 
me to Dvinsk, but tell nobody." General Hartung 
motored me back to my hotel, and, having made 
my preparations, I returned to the station and hid 
myself in the train till it left. She is pestered by 
people wanting to go with her. 

It was the most divine time being with her. 
We ate with the Sisters, the priest, and the doctor, 
but had tea in her compartment. We talked of 
everybody and everything in the world. She is a 
marvellous woman, and always at her best where 
there is much to do sparing herself no trouble, 
quite thorough, a woman after my heart ! 

The journey, 503 versts (315 miles), took thirty 

c 



34 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 hours. We went beyond Dvinsk to the present 
railhead virtually where Russia now ends ! We 
were within three miles of the trenches and saw 
and heard what I had not experienced for months 
cannon and shrapnel all day and night, but no 
Zeppelins. From the windows of the train where 
it was drawn up we saw silhouetted against the 
snow, careering down a long straight avenue, a 
battery of artillery galloping up to the Front 
most dramatic effect ! 

It was a weird sight as we went out of the station 
with torches to meet the wounded, who were 
being brought in by peasants in carts ; there were 
only a few motor-ambulances as the roads are 
indescribably bad : many of the men were un- 
dressed, and the carts were dripping with blood. 
It must have been like that in Napoleon's time 
the same place and time of year. But once the 
poor things were in the train there was every 
comfort and luxury. 

Some of the sanitaires are from the ballet. 
They carried the torches, so you can imagine we 
were well lit and led. There were many peritonitis 
cases from wounds no disease. All were splen- 
didly fit, well fed, clothed, and booted. The 
arrangements are wonderful perfect organization, 
and the wounded were admirably transferred to 
the train. 

Her train * is No. I out of 300 ; the next five 

* The Grand Duchess Vladimir instituted her ambulance 
train during the war with Japan. Being the first of its kind, 
it stands first on the list. 



ON A HOSPITAL TRAIN 35 

belong to the Empress and her four daughters. 1915 
Hers, I am told, is the best organised of any. 
We started off with 492 wounded, but several died 
on the way ; twelve of them were officers, of whom 
three were Mohammedans. The two trains were 
made up of twenty-nine carriages. After every man 
had been put in his cot, she went and visited each 
one. I luckily had many cigarettes, and made a 
few friends whom I have since seen in hospitals. 

Mile. Olive, her maid of honour, never went to 
bed all night ; she was with those who died, or 
who suffered most, or who wanted letters written. 

Nearly a hundred received Communion from the 
train priest. Nobody murmured or complained, 
all most grateful. One boy who came in un- 
conscious woke up and thought he was in Heaven ! 
Those who died went out like watches run-down, 
without effort just stopped breathing. It was 
intensely sad, though with so much to do I hadn't 
time to think until I went to bed ; but one felt 
the very best had been done for them each was 
a hero. 

We w r ere four nights away, the journey thirty 
hours each way : 12 Fahrenheit. The packing 
of the wounded into the train was done without 
hurry or fuss. The Russians are so kind ; over 
all there was a feeling, from the highest to the 
humblest, of intense human sympathy for the 
suffering. 

A man of 22, shot in the spine, was accompanied 
by his beautiful young wife, dressed as a man. 
Both had volunteered in the Field Telephone Service. 



36 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 She nurses him, and the Grand Duchess has 
arranged that she is to live in his hospital. 

When we got to Petrograd they were unpacked 
by volunteer students, who meet every train. 
The Grand Duchess waited till the last one had 
left for his hospital no hitch, no flurry, all done 
like machinery. She was dead tired (so was I), 
but she never left till all had gone (9 p.m.). She 
looks very white too white. 

The hospitals are crammed in Petrograd. The 
fighting near Dvinsk has been terrible, but we are 
holding our own all the time, and driving the enemy 
back everywhere. Alas, no rifles for the new troops 
to support these advances ! 

We saw enormous guns continually arriving, with 
a special railway to take them to the trenches. 
All the trains were laden with small cannon and 
munitions. On every box was painted " No econo- 
my " ; some had " Moscow will send you all you 



want.' 1 



Really, all my friends have been good to me 
and I have seen in the war what few civilians have 
seen ; I am very grateful. I shall always remember 
Colonel Asser's kindness at Boulogne-sur-Mer. 

The Southern Army gave the Emperor the 
St. George's Cross, much to the envy of the other 
two armies ; his letter of thanks to them is 
beautifully worded. 

The little boy, for being under fire, has got 
St. George's Medal, which last Sunday he was 
fingering all the time through Mass. He and his 
father got lost in a fog in the south and couldn't 



THE TZESAREVICH AT THE FRONT 37 

find their automobile, so they ate with the soldiers, 1915 
which the little boy loved. When leaving Stavka 
the first time, he said, " I hate going back to 
Tsarskoe to be the only man amongst all those 
women." The Emperor has carried him off again 
to the Front. He got into the train an hour 
before its time to start, for fear of being kept back 
at the last moment, and was found sitting in his 
compartment with his sailor, his balalaika, and 
his dog, who hates the firing. 

I went with Prince Michael Gorchakov to a 
charity ballet for the Russian prisoners in Germany. 
Sazonov was in the next box, and during an entr'acte 
talked to me about his leaving office. He told me 
that he had his successor all ready to take his place, 
and that he wouldn't be missed. He has been in 
office five years without a day's rest. He wakes up 
at 5 every morning ; so do I. I can feel for him, 
but I sleep before dinner : he can't. Gossip says 
that, when he asked permission to resign, the 
Emperor replied, " I would willingly let you go 
and rest, but England won't." 

Luncheon at the Grand Duchess Vladimir's to Wednesday, 
meet all the doctors and Sisters from her ambulance Nov> * 7 ' Dm 
train. 

I went yesterday with General Knorring to see Wednesday, 
a most interesting work. It is where the disabled Nov * * 7 ' L ' 
soldiers pass the night before leaving for their 
homes, receive a complete outfit, and some money 
from the State. A committee of ladies gives other 
money from a fund for special cases. It is ad- 
mirably arranged the most complete order, and 



38 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1915 done with the heart as all Russian kindness is, 
no red tape, no harsh word. There had always 
been this State charity existent, but, at the request 
of the Grand Duchess Vladimir, the Emperor 
allowed her to take it over and develop it on the 
larger scale now required ; so now she runs it with 
State money, her own money, and money out of 
her own organisation fund. Volunteer students 
go there each day, so there are no expenses at all, 
and each student has his appointed hours and work. 
For the Siberians there are sheepskin coats ; there 
are boots of every sort and size ; socks, caps, 
shirts, fur caps, warm coats, thinner coats, crutches, 
sticks. It was very touching so many blind, lame, 
and a few idiots. Every day there passes through 
a stream of men up to the five hundred who can be 
accommodated. It is held in the State factory where 
vodka used to be made, now closed. Automobiles 
drive them to their different stations, or else they 
go in tramcars, free. One has to come to Russia 
to see how well things can be managed. 

Wednesday, REVAL. Luncheon with Sazonov yesterday, and 
ov. 24. D. - n t j ie evenm g came h ere to visit submarines in 

harbour. Was shown all over E.i8 and had a 
cocktail, Landale doing the honours. After lun- 
cheon with Lawrence and other officers, went below 
to the ward-room. Lawrence took me after dinner 
to visit Girard, the British Consul, and his wife. 
Wednesday, To small dinner at the Embassy given for the 
ec. i. . Q ranc [ Duress Vladimir. In the evening she did 
a jig-saw puzzle, not having played cards since 
the war began. 



VISIT TO ANGLO-RUSSIAN HOSPITAL 39 

Yesterday the Grand Duchess telephoned me to 1915 
come to service and luncheon, as she thought D^ d * y ' D. 
I would like to meet an archbishop. In the 
evening to Le Voleur at Th6atre Michel. To-day, 
on my return from Tsarskoe, where the Emperor 
and family were at church, but not the little boy, 
I went to Anglo-Russian Hospital, which the 
Grand Duchess Vladimir was visiting. 

Dined last night with Grand Duchess and Grand Sunday, 
Duke Andre. Left this morning at 7.30 for Dec< I9 ' D * 
England. 



NINETEEN SIXTEEN 






NINETEEN SIXTEEN 

CHRISTIANIA. Not too bad a crossing. 1916 
As we were nearing Arendal, in Norway, y^ ^' 
we nearly ran into a mine. The sudden 
veering of the steamer threw us all off our seats. 
All along the south coast of Norway, where there 
are many currents, loose mines are constantly 
being washed up. 

TORNEO : the frontier town of the Russian Friday, 
Empire. The Customs officials were insisting on 
opening my luggage, when I told them that I had 
passed out of France into England, out of England 
into Norway, out of Norway into Sweden, and out 
of Sweden without any examination. I protested 
that, as I was carrying a Foreign Office bag, English 
and French official papers, and letters from the 
Russian Embassy,* I would not allow anything to 
be touched now that I was in Russia. The head 
official replied, " You are in Finland, not in 
Russia ! " On my declaring that I would sit on my 
luggage until orders arrived from the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs in Petrograd, they climbed down. 

A perfect Arctic day. In front of the station, on 

* This as a matter of courtesy and not in an official capacity. 
The English Foreign Office and War Office gladly seized any 
opportunity of direct communication with Russia through 
reputable channels. 

43 



44 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 a detached birch-tree covered with hoar-frost 
silhouetted against the faintest blue sky, were 
seventeen magpies settling to roost. A symphony 
in black and white, until the sky became bright 
crimson at sundown. 

Sunday, PETROGRAD. Arrived midnight. In the morn- 

Jan. 23. D. - n g to Embassy w ith bag and parcels and to Foreign 
Office with a book for Sazonov. Then to Grand 
Duchess Vladimir's palace to church. My unex- 
pected appearance at Mass startled her. After 
luncheon sat on, giving her Paris and London news 
of her many friends. To ballet after dinner. 
Feb. 5. L. I found our Grand Duchess better in health than 
when I left, not so white or weary. She says that 
nobody, except you, gives her any news of people 
in their letters from France. She is always longing 
to know what has become of her numerous French 
friends, and what they are doing. 

Wednesday was the birthday of the Kyrills' 
eldest little girl, so there was a cinema and tea and 
dancing at our Grand Duchess's. I led a cotillon 
such a romp ! I must say I thoroughly enjoyed it. 
I hadn't run about so much since the war began. 
It was great fun, and the children loved it : I 
was so stiff next day I couldn't move. 

Yesterday at a children's party at the Kyrills' 
the English Ambassador's daughter danced a pas 
seul to the admiration of everybody. 

The Emperor came back last Monday night. I 
shall go to church at Tsarskoe Selo on Sunday just 
to see him smile and hear the Cossacks salute him 
with a yell ! 



DINNER AT THE FRENCH EMBASSY 45 

Old Prince Gorchakov is rather shaky. He sleeps 1916 
on a sofa in his drawing-room surrounded by palm- 
trees. The French Embassy has dinners every 
week and I dine there again on Wednesday ex- 
cellent food and wine, and it is always agreeable. 

At the opening of the Anglo-Russian Hospital 
the Empress Marie, the Emperor's two daughters, 
and our Grand Duchess were there. It's a fine 
hospital well arranged. 

The days are dark no sun though beginning 
to lengthen. You don't know how I miss the sun 
after twenty winters in Sicily, and I envy you at 
Cannes waking up in the morning and looking down 
over the sea bathed in sunshine. 

To dinner with Grand Duchess Vladimir and Tuesday, 
afterwards went with her to the Imperial Academy 
to a lecture " Italian Influence on Russian Archi- 
tecture " with splendid illustrations projected on 
a screen. During dinner Grand Duke Boris told 
me he had given my Memorandum to the Emperor. 

To Admiralty at 10, where I was informed the Wednesday, 
official approval had already been telegraphed by 
the Emperor's command. 

Just before dinner the Embassy telephoned 
laconically, " The Emperor will receive you at 
Tsarskoe at half -past two to-morrow " nothing 
else, no instructions as to clothes, etc. Dining the 
same evening at the French Embassy, the Grand 
Duke Boris said to me, " You must talk to the 
Emperor just as you do to me, and tell him every- 
thing you know." He had spoken to the Emperor 
about me, as also had Sazonov. The French 



46 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 Ambassador said, " Ne laissez tomber jamais la 



conversation." 



Feb. 13. L. The favour shown me was almost unique. The 
Embassy cannot ask for any private person to be 
granted an audience. There had not been a similar 
case, and they did not know what clothes I ought 
to wear. Fortunately, having sent early in the 
morning to ask about this, I heard by telephone 
that I was to appear in dress clothes. 

I left my hotel at 12.40 and took the train for 
Tsarskoe Selo, where a Court carriage awaited me 
at the station. At the palace I was shown first 
into a room in the suite always occupied by the 
Grand Duchess Serge on her visits to her sister, 
the Empress. Prince Dolgorukov soon came and 
fetched me, when, passing through the great gallery, 
I found, to my surprise, Mile. Olive waiting for 
the Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, who was at 
luncheon with the Emperor and Empress. 

The Grand Duchess told me at dinner next day 
that she had not known I was to be received to-day, 
but that during luncheon the Emperor read out 
my name from the day's list of audiences. 

After Prince Dolgorukov and I had sat with 
Mile. Olive for a few minutes she told me not to 
linger, as the Emperor always escorted the Grand 
Duchess to her automobile, traversing the gallery, 
and I ought not to meet him before he had received 
me. 

So we continued our way to the great drawing- 
room at the end of the gallery, where everybody 
had to wait before being received by the Emperor. 



INTERVIEW WITH THE EMPEROR 47 

Three officers were already there waiting to be 1916 
decorated with the St. George's Cross. They were 
called before me. 

After a few minutes I was summoned by an 
attendant in the livery of an eighteenth-century 
courier, wearing a flat hat with a huge bunch of 
red-and-yellow ostrich feathers on the left side. 
He conducted me along a corridor to the Emperor's 
cabinet de travail. I found him standing near the 
door. On receiving me he said, " I am so pleased 
you were able to come to-day, as I leave to-night 
at 10 for the Front." This put me at my ease. 
He said, " I know your face ; I think we must have 
met before." I replied, " I think, sir, you may 
have seen me at the Feodorovski Sobor [cathedral], 
as I have permission to attend Your Majesty's 
church." His simplicity wins one's heart. 

He said the Empress knew my name. At lun- 
cheon -so the Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna also 
told me later the Emperor said to her, " Why 
don't you receive him after me r " She replied 
that she had to go to her hospital. I am glad, as 
it might have shortened my time with him. 

We crossed the room to his writing-table : in 
Russia they are all enormous. The Emperor then 
asked me to sit down, and offered me cigarettes. As 
I was trying to get my match-box out, he thought 
I was taking out my cigarette-case, and said, 
" Perhaps you would rather smoke your own ? " 

He conversed with me for very nearly an hour, 
talking of the Empress Marie whose ill-treatment 
by the Germans at the beginning of the war he 



48 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 declared he would never forgive and of her unhap- 
piness at being unable to see her sister, Queen 
Alexandra ; of the Heir Apparent and his health ; 
of his accompanying Queen Victoria to visit a near 
relative of my own in London. I explained the 
object of my visit to Russia, and then we got back 
to politics and the war America, Zeppelins, Bel- 
gium, munitions, and God knows what ! 

We talked of Peter the Great ; of Queen Eliza- 
beth and John the Terrible, who wanted to marry 
her. I recounted the Torneo incident,* and some 
of my own war experiences : the exodus from Paris 
in August 1914 ; the Battle of the Marne ; my 
automobile accident at the evacuation of Ostend, 
October 14, 1914 ; my visit to Ypres, November 8, 
1914. I related how Lady Ripon, in the King 
George the Fifth Hospital, with her wonderful 
instinct for organisation, got hold of sixty-six 
pianos from friends and acquaintances for the 
wounded soldiers' entertainment at Christmas, 
returning them all next morning to their lenders. 

The Emperor listened with deep interest while I 
told him about the Irish Catholic lad lying mortally 
wounded in the hospital of Princess Murat at 
Chambly in September 1914. Seeing he was sinking 
fast, she asked if he had messages to send home. 
" None," he answered. A few moments passed ; 
then, raising himself slowly in his bed, he said 
in a loud, firm voice, " I die for King George and 
England ! " and fell back dead. 
|! He asked me, " Where are you staying ? I hope 
* See Jan. 21, supra. 




FEODOROVSKI SOBOR, THE EMPEROR'S CHURCH AT 
TSARSKOE SELO 



THE EMPEROR ON LORD KITCHENER 49 

you are comfortable ? " I named my hotel, and 
he remarked, " I believe there's a newer hotel, but 
I can't remember the name." I said the new hotel 
was the rendezvous of a not very attractive clientele. 
He laughed " Perhaps you are getting old ? " I 
rejoined, " No, sir ! It's the ladies that are old ; 
I still feel quite young." 

Happening to mention that as soon as anybody 
arrived in Petrograd from London and Paris he 
was beset with friends anxious to hear of the 
fashions, gossip, and literature, of the last new plays 
at the Paris theatres, and so on, I compared it to 
the arrival of a traveller in the days of Catherine 
the Second. The Emperor rejoined, " It reminds 
me of the time of Ivan the Terrible, when Russia's 
only seaport was Archangel, just as it is now." 

Alluding to the subject of reputations lost in the 
war, the Emperor remarked to me : " One ought 
not to judge any person who may be thought to 
have failed in his duty or his judgment until the 
war is over ; for it might well happen that those 
who are now severely criticised will, before the 
end, be found to have been right after all." 

We talked much of Lord Kitchener, and I related 
that it was entirely due to him and to his name 
with his countrymen that the colossal volunteer 
enlistment had been carried through in England. 
When I expressed a hope that Lord Kitchener's 
name was known and respected in the Russian 
Army the Emperor instantly answered, " I should 
think so indeed ! We should all feel it deeply if 
he were to leave the War Office." On the spur of 



So RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 the moment, and wishing to say what was pleasant, 
I answered, " There is no chance of that, sir." He 
replied with emphasis, " That's very good news." 
Mentioning General Callwell, who had expressed 
to me his great devotion to Lord Kitchener, the 
Emperor spoke with evident appreciation of him, 
telling me he was looking forward to the English 
General's return with lots of news " and other 
things" 

What impressed me most of all was his cri du 
cceur, " The most agreeable of all my duties is going 
to the Front." He is to be away at the Front for 
twelve days. 

When the Emperor wished me good-bye he said, 
" If you leave without my seeing you again, please 
convey to the King and Queen that I am always 
thinking of them, and lay all my affectionate love 
at their feet." 

On leaving I returned with Prince Dolgorukov 
and the officer on guard to tea in the Grand Duchess 
Elizabeth's apartments, leaving at 4.15 for Petro- 
grad. 

I thoroughly enjoyed my visit and am quite 
pleased with myself. 

I dined with my Grand Duchess and her youngest 
son next day, to tell her all about it, and when 
they heard I had been there three-quarters of an 
hour, that I had sat down all the time, and had 
smoked cigarettes with him, they both said, " It 
is unheard of ! You don't know what audiences 
are ten minutes at the longest, and standing 
up!" 



SYEROV'S PORTRAIT OF THE EMPEROR 51 

I send you a post card of Syerov's wonderful 1916 
portrait of the Emperor, which has all his charm. 
Syerov's picture was hung in the Winter Palace.* 

To Prince Gorchakov's at tea-time, where I led Tuesday, 
a children's cotillon, and dined at the French Feb> I5 ' D ' 
Embassy to meet the Grand Duchess Marie Pav- 
lovna. A long conversation with Sazonov, who 
told me he loved the Emperor. 

To the anniversary requiem for the Grand Duke Thursday, 
Vladimir at the Fortress of SS. Peter and Paul. Feb ' I7 ' D ' 
Much touched by the Grand Duchess sending her 
equerry to bring me on to her palace. Passed by 
English Embassy, where I was already engaged 
to luncheon, to explain that I could not come. 

At the opera. All the Allies' National Anthems 
were sung in honour of the taking of Erzrum. 

To see Trepov, Minister of Ways and Communi- Saturday, 
cations, who had been commanded by the Emperor 3 eb " I9 ' Dt 
to receive me. To ballet, where Fokine's Andalu- 
sian Jota, danced by his wife, was given for the 
first time. The scenery was remarkable the dance 
takes place on a plateau with nothing but the 
Sierra Nevada in the far distance. 

After dinner with the Grand Duchess Vladimir, Monday, 
to a soiree at the Academy, of which she is the e ' 2I ' D ' 
President. A charming evening, with Karsavina 
dancing. Afterwards an auction of prints and 
drawings on behalf of the Red Cross. 

Having an Embassy ticket for the opening of Tuesday, 

Feb. 22. >, 

* During the Revolution of 1917 a boy was carrying it 
across the Winter Palace square ; he was stopped by Bolshe- 
viki, who slashed it in pieces and stamped it into pulp. 



52 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1910 the Duma, was much disappointed at their asking 
for it back at the last moment too late for me to 
get another from my Russian friends. In the 
afternoon heard that the Duma had been opened 
by the Emperor, accompanied by the Grand Duke 
Michael. No one knew of this till he arrived there. 

Monday, Luncheon at the Embassy with General Sir 

Feb. 28. D. Arthur Paget and Lord Pembroke, who had come 
to deliver to the Emperor the Field-Marshal's baton 
sent him by King George. When the time came 
for making the ceremonial presentation, and the 
General had begun his speech, it was found that the 
baton had been left on the piano in another room, 
and had to be hastily fetched. 

Saturday, On Sunday last, the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
ar ' "' ' Kchessinskaia's entrance to the ballet, she took over 
the house and sold all the tickets herself, and gave 
the money (3200) to the Red Cross. She danced 
the Talisman her great success. Sir Arthur 
Paget was in the centre Imperial box, and " God 
Save the King " was played, and he bowed all 
round. A fine house. Three Grand Dukes in their 
side box. 

Monday, Yesterday went to church at Tsarskoe Selo. The 

ar ' I3 ' ' Empress drove away with the second daughter, 

and the Emperor with the other three, and the little 

boy in a sledge with three horses. They all looked 

so happy together. 

Tuesday, At 11.30 to the votive church for the anniversary 

ar " 14- re q u i ern f or Alexander II. Church crowded with 
Government officials and important members of 
the Imperial household. 



COSSACK GEORGIAN OFFICERS 53 

After visits to the Grand Duchess and the 1916 
Embassy, left Petrograd in the evening for Tiflis. Mar.Ty. D. 
Found Terestchenko in the train : we talked in my 
cabin from 4 to 5. Between Baku and Tiflis saw 
pelicans and storks fishing in the marshes and 
camels working in the fields. Arrived at Tiflis 
3 p.m. 

TIFLIS. General Call well at luncheon at my Wednesday, 
hotel just back from the frontier and Batum. He p 5< 
came to decorate the Russian General who had 
taken Erzrum, but the roads being almost im- 
passable the latter had to come to the frontier 
to receive his English order. 

TIFLIS. Visited the old churches and Armenian Friday, 
bazaar. In the afternoon saw the new moon and p 7 * 
the first swallows. 

TIFLIS. I must own to you that Tiflis has been Sunday, 
a disappointment after all I had been told about pn 9 ' 
it. The hotel life here is delightful some twenty 
Cossack Georgian officers, en conge or en convalescence, 
all live or eat in the hotel. 

Amongst them is the great Tolstoy's youngest 
son great fun ! They remind me of the Sicilians, 
and run in and out from their meals all the time. 
They all have improbable waists, and are hung 
with poignards and swords. They are trying to 
get up a Georgian cavalry regiment, but the ques- 
tion of horses and saddles is difficult. If they do, 
I shall join them as invite on June 15 and do 
the summer campaign with them : they say I could 
be of use in many ways. All Georgians are born 
warriors. 



54 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 I went to see Prince Napoleon Murat yesterday. 

He was frost-bitten in the knees in Galicia, and 
about a month ago he fell down just as he was 
getting better, and has been in bed for a month, 
but now he is picking up again. I told him all I 
could about France : the tears came to his eyes. 
He is adored here. He was pleased to hear that 
the Emperor had spoken of him. 

I wish Trebizond could be taken while I am here, 
but the Turks are very strong there and have been 
reinforcing since the fall of Erzrum. The food is 
excellent in the hotel rice with nearly everything 
and black cherry jam ; almond and pistachio tart- 
lets, also wine ; so I am all right. 

Tuesday, TIFLIS. Would have liked to motor over the 

April ii. D. c aucas i an Mountains and take the train at Vladi- 

kavkas, but the road is not yet opened and no 

automobile has come over from there, so took seats 

in train for Petrograd. 

Wednesday, TIFLIS. The hotel courier, George whose family 
April 12. D. k a( j b een massacrec [ by the Turks near Erzrum 

rushed in and said a motor-car had arrived from 
Vladikavkas and he had engaged it for me for 
to-morrow morning. 

Thursday, Left hotel in automobile exactly 6.45 a.m. 

April 13. D. Reached t h e summ it 1.20 p.m. (127 versts). Excel- 
lent road cut through deeps now on the top. Arrived 
at Vladikavkas at 4. 

Friday, VLADIKAVKAS. Joined the train at 5 a.m. 

April 14. D. wllic}l had left Tiflig tn irty-eight hours before. 

Glorious morning ; saw the sun rise over the 
mountains. 



CROSSING THE CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS 55 

PETROGRAD. Arrived midday. 

Sunday, 
April 16. D. 

I came away from Tiflis by the military road Tuesday, 

across the Caucasus Mountains, 8000 feet high. ^PJl 1 18 - L * 

5 to Mar- 

The road was better than might have been expected, chioness of 
as I was in the first automobile to cross this year. Rl P n - 
One comes down on the north side through a narrow 
defile with a dashing torrent. The chauffeur was 
not very attentive to his car, and preferred looking 
over the precipices to looking at the turnings in 
front of him. I had at last to threaten him with 
personal violence. I had paid for the journey before 
leaving. 

As we flew down this narrow defile there rose 
suddenly in the middle of it a great detached rock 
or small hill with a ruined castle on it. It was 
there that " Tham'ara " in the Russian ballet lured 
her victims. Furtively the chauffeur pointed at it 
with one hand, but did not dare to turn round to 
say anything, so I leant forward and said, " Schto 
takoi ? " (" What is it ? "), and he only said, 
" Tham'ara." I looked up quickly, and through a 
window could picture the voluptuous almond eyes 
of Karsavina as " Tham'ara " looking for another 
victim, and beneath the rocks the bleached bones 
and nose of dear Mr. Bolm. 

There I was, at the foot of the very castle we 
had so often sitting in your box at Co vent Garden 
admired the interior of, and through its window 
gazed on the view of the defile. I fancied I saw one 
of her cushions at the window as I flew down the 
road seeking safety for my virtue and my bones. 



56 RUSSIAN DIARY 

i9 l6 I think " Tham'ara " must have lived on trout 

and mutton as there is nothing else in the country 
and of course on rice, like every good Georgian. 
After the war I shall propose to you to come out 
and see the castle and Mr. Bolm's skeleton. 

When the Russians got to Erzrum there was not 
one Christian alive save six girls in the American 
Consulate. The guide of the Tiflis Hotel was a 
Christian Turk, not Armenian, and his town was a 
little to the south of Erzrum. There all the Chris- 
tians were also massacred 840, including his old 
grandmother. 

Tell his lordship I saw in the Caucasus herons, 
storks, pelicans, white eagles with black tips to 
their wings, many kestrels and buzzards, flamingos, 
yellow water-wagtails and dark red woodpeckers, 
magpies and jays, heaps of ducks, I think shel- 
drakes (but not near enough for me to distinguish), 
and one kingfisher. 

All the fruit-trees were in blossom in the valleys 
at Tiflis peaches, apricots, plums, and cherries. 

I dined with the Grand Duchess last night. I 
found her well and in good spirits ; we talked 
much about you. She declares she never hears 
any news when I am away ! The family have been 
much exercised where the Emperor will be at 
Easter. The Emperor spends Easter at the Front. 
Wednesday, Last night, in the street, from a friend in the 
April 19. D. g ecret Service, heard of the taking of Trebizond. 
Immediately wrote this to the Grand Duchess, who 
was at dinner with her three sons ; none of them 
Jcnew it. Luncheon to-day with the Grand Duchess, 



GOOD FRIDAY CEREMONIES 57 

and afterwards saw from the palace windows the 1916 
ceremony of the opening of the Neva. The Governor 
of the Peter-Paul Fortress stood at the river-side 
entrance, where he was first saluted by the State 
barge of the town, on which he embarked. He was 
then met by the barges of the Admiralty and the 
Preobrajenski Guards and escorted to the Winter 
Palace. Afterwards I went to Pavlosk to see Prince 
Christopher of Greece, who is staying with his 
mother, Queen Olga. Fine old English prints in all 
the corridors. 

Orthodox Good Friday, same day as ours this Good Fri- 
year rare. To luncheon off caviare at Polovtsov's. ^ y ' ^ prl 
He most kindly took me to the St. Alexander Nevski 
Lavra (monastery) to see the Good Friday Proces- 
sion from one church to the other. The " Tomb " 
which is a flat picture of the dead Christ was 
carried by four of the clergy, the Metropolitan 
walking underneath the icon, bearing it on his 
uplifted hands. At 7 to the Grand Duchess 
Vladimir's church, where the three Grand Dukes 
carried the " tomb." Afterwards dined maigre with 
her and her children. 

This afternoon, while watching the crowd out Holy 
of the window of my room, suddenly realised that ^u^ 7 'i> 
the curtains were on fire. Before I could get help 
half the room in flames. My only consolation was 
to hear later that the flag was hoisted on the fire- 
tower at the end of my street, which dates from 
earliest Petrograd. 

At half-past eleven at night drove to St. Isaac's, 
where from my izvoschik saw the Easter procession 



58 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 passing round the cathedral. The Peter-Paul For- 
tress cannon were firing minute guns. Then to 
the Grand Duchess Vladimir's church, where the 
Divine Liturgy was not over till one in the morning. 
We sat down to supper, forty-two people at three 
tables. I was on the Grand Duchess's left. At 
a quarter to three the Grand Duke Dmitri drove 
Princess Susie Belosselski * and me to the Michael 
Gorchakovs, where we stayed till 5. 

Easter At noon returned to the Vladimir palace. The 

April%' D Grand Duchess presented each of the entire house- 
hold over two hundred with an Easter egg, and 
afterwards her eldest son, the Grand Duke Kyrill, 
gave everybody the Easter kiss, except the old 
Lutheran housekeeper. I, with those who had at 
different times accompanied Her Imperial Highness 
to the Front, was presented with a platinum badge 
of her initials entwined round a Red Cross. 
Monday, In the morning to the Admiralty. In the after- 

April 24. D. noon to a children's party at the Grand Duchess 

Vladimir's. Great fun with the children hunting 
all over the house for hidden Easter eggs. Back to 
dinner there. Grand Duke Boris proposed my 
leaving with him on Wednesday for Kiev to see the 
Grand Duke Alexander Michailovich, head of the 
Air Service. 

Wednesday, Left at 5.30 for Kiev. Dined with Grand Duke 
Boris in his private car, with Countess Zamoyska 
and Grand Duke Sergei Michailovich. 

At Gomel Station met General Lukomski, who 

* Princess Suzanne Belosselski, nee Whittier, m. Prince 
Serge. 



AT KIEV 59 

had been so kind and courteous to me at the War 1916 
Office which he left at the same time with the 
Minister of War, General Polivanov. He was on his 
way to take up a command in the South- Western 
Army. 

KIEV. Arrived here 6.15 a.m. Luncheon with Friday, 
a lot of officers, and to the ballet with them in the A P ril 28 - D - 
evening. Supper and bed at 5 a.m. 

KIEV. To write my name on Grand Duke Saturday, 
Alexander. Dined with the Ambassador, Lady April 29> D - 
Georgina and Miss Meriel, who had just arrived 
from a fortnight's stay in the Crimea. 

KIEV. To-day is the Tyszkiewicz-Branicka * mar- Sunday, 
riage at Bielozervig, two hours from Kiev, to which Apnl 3 ' D ' 
all Poland was going. The Grand Duke Boris was 
sent by the Emperor to represent him. One hun- 
dred and thirty-five sat down to breakfast, served 
on Louis-Quinze vermeil. The house, where I 
stayed in 1909, is crammed with priceless objets 
cfart. The Grand Duke Boris sent his A.D.C. to 
ask me to dinner in my hotel. We were thirty-two 
all wedding guests just returned from the wedding. 

KIEV. After luncheon with the Grand Duke Monday, 
Boris he drove me to the Grand Duke Alexander's, May *' D ' 
who was out. He went in and explained my mission 
to the A.D.C. We returned to the hotel. Later 
Grand Duke Alexander telephoned to me to come, 
and I went. He listened most attentively to what 
I had to say and then asked me for European news. 
He told me he had heard from an American in 
Paris, who wrote of nothing but amusements and 
* Count Benedict Tyszkiewicz, m. Countess Rose Branicka. 



6o 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



1916 



Friday, 
May 5. L. 



Sunday, 
May 7. D. 



Tuesday, 
May 9. D. 



Thursday, 
May ii. D 



Monday, 
May 15. D 



the weather. This selfishness and indifference 
horrified him. 

PETROGRAD. Arrived Wednesday. Saturday * is 
the Empress's name-day, when the whole family 
has luncheon at Tsarskoe Selo. Princess Susie 
Belosselski's son was married last Sunday in their 
beautiful old house on the Christovski Island. 
Being a lovely day, everybody was in the garden. 

Alone to Peterhof . It's so beautiful like 
Hampton Court, with the sea instead of the river, 
the woods carpeted with flowers, and no tourists 
yet ; the fountains only begin next Sunday. 

An attache of our Embassy died quite suddenly, 
and we all went to the funeral yesterday ; the 
French Ambassador walked with us to the cemetery 
in a blazing sun. Greenway was only twenty-three, 
a very nice boy. 

Snowing deliberately and the roofs quite white. 
Luncheon at the Grand Duchess's to-day to meet 
Prince Christopher of Greece, who leaves to-morrow. 
Afterwards accompanied her to the Academy, where 
there was a fine exhibition of English posters. 

The Grand Duchess's birthday. Took her a pink 
rose-tree. Then to her church for Te Deum. At 
luncheon (sixty-two converts) I was the only 
foreigner. Grand Duke Paul proposed her health. 
In the evening the two demoiselles d'honneur gave 
a musical party in their apartments, followed by a 
surprise supper and the Grand Duke Boris's 
orchestra. Supper at 1.30 ; daylight at 2 ; home 
at 3. All very pleasant and gay. 

* April 23, O.S., St. George's Day. 



LADY MURIEL PAGET 61 

Emperor's birthday, and Monday * another holi- 1916 
day ! This month, with Sundays, there are eleven May^'. D. 
holidays in thirty-one days. This is like the 
kingdom of Naples before 1860. 

Saw the first basket of cherries and sent them Sunday, 
to the Grand Duchess. Every one in love with 
Albert Thomas the Grand Duchess says he is 
delightful. Back in my burnt-out room, smelling 
of paint, but spick and span, with new curtains. 

I have made great friends with Lady Muriel Wednesday, 
Paget, who has come out about the Anglo-Russian ay 24 ' 
Hospital. I find her charming, and also efficient. 
The Anglo-Russian Hospital was in splendid 
isolation and she has already made it more human 
and more useful. 

I took her to see the Grand Duchess on Sun- 
day about the field hospital going to the Front. 
The Grand Duke Andre came in, and in a minute 
he had telephoned for her to see the General 
commanding the Guards Division, to which she 
had hoped to be attached ; so now it's all fixed up. 
The Grand Duke Andre arranged it all and Lady 
Muriel is to leave directly. The Grand Duchess, 
who has taken immensely to her, yesterday visited 
the hospital and was received by the Ambassador. 
She spoke to all the wounded men and afterwards 
went with Lady Muriel to her room to talk over 
the field hospital. 

It is a pleasure to do anything for Lady Muriel ; 
she is so quick and grateful. 

In the afternoon went to the Cour des Pages Sunday, 

May 28. D 
* Feast of St. Nicolas, the Emperor's patron. 



62 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 for the blessing of the field hospital, and walked 
away with General Hanbury - Williams. The 
Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna assisted at the 
ceremony. 

Monday, To Liphart's studio a great portrait painter 

May 29. D. w h ere ^ Q ran J Duchess was sitting for her picture, 
which is to hang permanently at the Academy. 
He told me his son was in the Russian Mission in 
London. It was he who was sent from London to 
Paris to announce the confirmation of my Admiralty 
order telegraphed by the Emperor's command. 
Tuesday, Heard under seal of secrecy that O'Beirne was 

May 30. D. com j n g ^^ L orc l Kitchener. From England had 
also heard of their intended departure, but con- 
sidered myself still under the seal. To-night at 
dinner I met several friends of O'Beirne, who was 
simply worshipped by all classes of society in 
Russia during his nine years at the Embassy. 
To one of the ladies I said I would tell her fortune 
if she would cut the cards. Whatever she cut 
I intended to say that a great friend was coming 
to see her. She cut " an unmarried man" " a 
journey" "an accident" and " death" But I only 
said a friend was making a journey to see her ; 
nobody guessed who it could be. There was then 
in Petrograd no idea of any English Mission 
coming. 

Monday, To the Embassy, to speak to His Excellency 

June 5. D. a k out an American loan offered to Russia by the 

National City Bank, which had got hung up and 

seemed more than likely to fall through. Without 

hesitation he said he would do all he could for it. 



AMERICAN FINANCES IN PETROGRAD 63 

The Bank representatives who had come from 
New York wanted him to say a word to Sazonov. 
The matter was in the hands of Bark, Minister of 
Finance. 

Returned to the hotel to tell the financiers, who 
asked if I thought the Ambassador would receive 
them before speaking to Sazonov. I immediately 
wrote to him and took the letter myself. 

To dinner with the Grand Duchess, who broke 
to me that her Red Cross train was too full to take 
me to the Front, as promised. 

Met the Ambassador on the quay. He stopped Tuesday, 
me and said he had seen the financiers and agreed J u 
with all they said, and had laid the position before 
Sazonov, who was going that night to Stavka. 
At the hotel dined on the roof with the Americans, 
and afterwards went to their apartments to play 
bridge. I was playing the hand when I was called 
to the telephone from the Embassy. My partner 
answered. When I had made " grand slam " 
I went to the telephone and was told the appalling 
news of the death of Lord Kitchener and everybody 
with him on board. My knees gave way beneath 
me : I collapsed. 

Before going to the Grand Duchess, who had Wednesday, 
telephoned me to come to luncheon, looked in at * u e 7 ' 
the Embassy, but there was no further news. 
Afterwards she went to see the Empress Alexandra 
at Tsarskoe before leaving at night for the Front. 

During the day all Petrograd passed by the 
Embassy for any news of O'Beirne. 

Decided to spend four days on the Volga to rest. 



6 4 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



1916 



Thursday, 
June 8. 
L. to Sir 

George 
A rthur. 



Saturday, 
June 10. D. 
Sunday, 
June ii. D. 



Great anger here at such valuable lives being risked 
with apparently no precautions. 

Yesterday Grand Duchess Vladimir talked a great 
deal about Lord Kitchener and England. She 
charged me to tell you how deeply she felt for you. 
I fully realise the immensity of your grief and the 
magnitude of your loss. 

It is a terrible tragedy for Russia that the great 
man was never to get here. He would have been 
invaluable to everybody, from the Emperor to the 
raw recruit. 

The recruits of May I have come in and are 
settling down. The streets again are full of sections 
drilling at various stages ; every drill-hall is over- 
flowing. The men are much finer than those of last 
October, which is accounted for by twenty-two 
months of " No alcohol." I constantly pass before 
the barracks of the Pavlovski Guards " snub- 
noses " founded by the Emperor Paul, who had 
hardly any nose ! Magnificent men, but the tallest 
are kept for the Preobrajenski Guards first regi- 
ment in the Russian Army. They are now learning 
to march with their long stride, to pout out their 
chests, and to salute with the chin in the air. 
The Russian soldier is a simple, earnest creature, 
born to be commanded ; when properly led, 
invincible not only because of his great personal 
bravery, but because his individuality is merged in 
that of his commander. 

To Nicolai station for Rebinsk. 

REBINSK-ON-THE-VOLGA. At a wayside station 
heard the heart-rending cries of a young peasant- 



VOYAGE ON THE VOLGA 65 

woman seeing off her soldier husband. The uncon- 1 916 
trolled cries of the people recall animals separated 
from their young. Drove straight to the steamer 
office, got my cabin key, and went on board. Up 
stream to Yaroslav, which, standing on its white 
cliffs, with its classical church embedded in trees, 
commands one of the most beautiful reaches of the 
Volga. 

NIJNI NOVGOROD. Arrived at 3 p.m. and visited Monday, 
the Kremlin and cathedral with its wonderful J une I2 - D - 
ancient icons, and left at night. From my cabin 
could hear the nightingales singing as we went 
along. Bright moonlight. 

VOLGA. River really rough with strong head- Tuesday, 
wind ; some people ill. Cloudless sky. At every * u 
landing-stage children were offering armsful of 
lilies of the valley for almost nothing. From a big 
monastery on the bank large crowds of Whitsuntide 
pilgrims came on board. Arrived Kasan at 6 p.m. 
Left steamer and drove to hotel. 

KASAN. In the morning visited the Kremlin, Wednesday, 
the cathedral, and the monastery from which the J une I4> D ' 
celebrated icon of the Virgin was taken by Peter 
the Great to Petersburg. In the afternoon to see 
the Tartar quarter and the mosques. At night 
drove to the steamer-pier, three miles over the 
plain at the foot of the town, which is covered 
with water when the ice melts. Left at mid- 
night up stream. " Mother Volga " is too 
beautiful for words one of the few things 
in my life I have really found better than I 
expected. 



66 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 NIJNI NOVGOROD. A picturesque town of old 

e. D. wooden houses amidst gardens on the side of wooded 
cliffs. To reach the Moscow station one has to 
cross a tributary river by ferry. A sudden tempest 
with drenching rain prevented the ferry-boat from 
making the opposite pier. It was only after five 
" tries " that we managed to get alongside. People 
on the boat much alarmed, except a little nine- 
year-old girl with long golden hair, whom I sheltered 
inside my waterproof ; she laughed at the panic 
and the storm. I carried her off the boat and she 
kissed me. 

Station situated in the quarter where the annual 
fair takes place. Busy building going on for the 
fair. Wherever train stopped, mushrooms, lilies 
of the valley, and nightingales. 

Sunday, PETROGRAD. Arrived from Moscow this morning. 

June i . . To-night American loan signed. 

Friday, Walking down the Nevski I overtook a religious 

June 23. D. p rocess i on ' m t h e midst of the trams and traffic. 

Who should be out for a walk but the icon of the 

Kasan Virgin, who lives in the Kasan Cathedral, 

accompanied by her own metropolitan with his 

walking-stick. I followed her into her church, 

and saw her popped into her frame again. She 

has a huge emerald on her chest, and a diamond 

crown. 

No service to-day at the Grand Duchess's church. 

She is the head of the Pompiers ; it is their annual 

review, so hears Mass with them I go to luncheon. 

Tuesday, Sazonov is settled in the big palace at Tsarskoe 

June 27. D. or ^ summer> Letter from Buckingham Palace 



THE TZESAREVICH IN STAVKA 67 

thanking me for the complete series of War Loan 1916 
picture placards. 

Princess Orlov had luncheon with me at Felicien's. 
Afterwards in glorious weather we walked to 
Kristovski to see Prince Belosselski, her father, who 
showed me his wonderful collection of pictures, 
buhl, and objets d'art. 

TSARSKOE SELO. Moved here yesterday to pass Sunday, 
the summer with the Grand Duchess Vladimir. J uly 2- >' 

To the Emperor's church ; the Empress and 
daughters were there. The dear little boy is away 
at Stavka with the Emperor. His Swiss tutor is 
with him, and he does his lessons on the veranda 
sometimes ! There is also a good deal of boating, 
rowing, and picnics perhaps just a little too 
much. 

TSARSKOE SELO. Motored with the Grand Friday, 
Duchess to Petrograd her weekly visit to her J uly7 * 
committees. She received the American financiers, 
whom I took to see her. Sazonov dined. He 
promised to do all in his power to further a matter 
I was interested in. Alluding to Lord Kitchener 
he said, " Really England is too careless of her 
great men's lives." 

TSARSKOE SELO. Drove after luncheon to Wednesday, 
Grand Duke Boris, and motored with him to ^ uly I2 * 
Terrijoki, in Finland, to stay with General Nostitz. 
A lovely dacha (villa) in the midst of pine-trees and 
birches, with lawns and flowers down to the sea. 
Kronstadt in the distance. Down the avenue 
the full moon rose across the sea, whilst we were 
dining in the veranda. 



68 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 TERRIJOKI. Yesterday we all went for a picnic 

D. m boats up the Black River. A miniature Maiden- 
head Reach. River full of trout and salmon. 
Tea on the bank. To-day motored back to Tsarskoe 
with Grand Duke Boris. Passing Petrograd race- 
course, went into Imperial box for two races. On 
Tsarskoe road stopped for the Grand Duke to 
speak to Countess Brassov, wife of Grand Duke 
Michael. 

Tuesday, TSARSKOE SELO. In the afternoon motored to 

July 18. D. Petrograd w jth the Grand Duchess to the Admiralty 

Pier. A steam-launch was waiting to take her 

down the river to the harbour of Vassili Ostrov, 

where she landed to inspect an enormous tent 

made by sailors for one of the thirteen organisations. 

On the island are two little houses of the time of 

Peter the Great. It was here that he had his galleys 

built. We visited two galleys one built in the time 

of Catherine II, the other in that of Alexander I. 

Friday, TSARSKOE SELO. Due de Luynes, Marquis de 

July 21. . j?j ers> on their way to Rumania, and Chambrun 

of the French Embassy dined. Prince Nicolas of 

Greece arrived at II. 

Monday, TSARSKOE SELO. We all went to the Grand 

July 24. . j) u k e p au i' s palace for tea in the garden. In the 
large drawing-room the two little girls of the 
Princess Palei acted a play in blank verse, written 
by their brother in French. The piece was delightful 
and beautifully acted. 

Friday, TSARSKOE SELO. St. Mary Magdalen. At lun- 

Aug. 4. D. c ]- ieon f ort y converts. Left afterwards for Petrograd 

about passport, so missed meeting Empress and 



JOURNEY TO ENGLAND 69 

her daughters. Returned for dinner. The Grand 1916 
Duchess received me in her cabinet de travail to 
wish me bon voyage. 

PETROGRAD. Came up last night. Havery, the Saturday, 
Embassy Messenger, fetched me 6.30 a.m. Picked J 
up the bags at the Embassy and left for England. 

TORNEO. Found my Customs friend most civil. Sunday, 
He sent everything to the river steamer without 1 
examination. Met Bark, Minister of Finance, 
with General Waters, just returning from London. 
In Finland railway-stations, on paying for one's 
luncheon, one is handed knife, fork, napkin, plate, 
etc., and eats as much as one likes ! 

BERGEN. Steamer left half an hour late, because Thursday, 
Mrs. Leverton Harris had lost her luggage. Sleep- ug ' I0 ' ' 
ing on deck after luncheon, before leaving the 
fjords for the open sea, was sent for by Captain. 
He expected the steamer to be stopped by German 
submarines, and said the F.O. bags ought to be 
weighted. The ship's carpenter put iron into the 
coulisses of the bags and deposited them on deck 
handy to throw overboard. Ship stopped sud- 
denly in the night. Rushed on deck and found 
only a sea-fog. Arrived at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



PETROGRAD [on Ms return from England]. Train Sunday, 
arrived punctually. Sept * * 4 * D - 

Holy Cross Day. To Tsarskoe Selo to evening Tuesday, 
service at Feodorovski Sobor, which so impressed me Sept< 26> D ' 
last year. The Empress and four daughters were 
there. 



yo RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 First snow. Last night to British Colony Hos- 

Oct. i. D. pital f r excellent performance given before the 
Ambassador by English submarine sailors from 
Reval ; laughed immoderately. 

Thursday, Heard of the death of my old friend, Alexis 

Oct. 5. D. Qrlov, in Paris. To Narodnie Dom (People's 

Palace) to first performance of a new opera brought 

from Moscow. Lovely music, ballet, and mise en 

scene ; Russian historic subject. 

Grand Duke Boris telephoned from Tsarskoe 
that his automobile would fetch me to-morrow 
midday. 1 have a petition to give him for the 
Emperor. 

Wednesday First frost. 24 Fahrenheit. It is quite true 
about Serge Obolenski. He marries Princess Baria- 
tinski, the youngest morganatic child of the Em- 
press Alexander II. She is very beautiful ; all the 
mothers of marriageable daughters are furious. 
The deaths of Alexis OrlofI and Prince Abamelek 
have given us all much to talk about as they were 
both very rich. I used to stay with Alexis in Paris. 
His mad dog bit me. 

Friday, To the Polovtsov's house on the islands for 

Oct. 20. D. luncheon^ w here I sat next to the Grand Duchess 
Vladimir and took leave of her before starting for 
Paris to-morrow. A house of the time of Alexan- 
der I -^furniture and objets <Tart of that epoch all 
in the best of taste. 

Saturday, Havery fetched me at 6.30, and took me to the 

Oct. 21. D. stat j on f or p ar i s> General Waters and Captain 

MacCaw in train. MacCaw was certainly the best 

and neatest travelling companion I have ever had 



AT TORNEO 71 

the pleasure of finding myself with. He was most 1916 
entertaining, with lots of Stavka stories. 



TORNEO. River frozen enough to stop naviga- Sunday, 
tion but not to bear sledges. No bother with Oct * 22 ' D ' 
Customs. Etter, brother of the Grand Duchess's 
equerry, and head of the committee for the recep- 
tion of Russian wounded prisoners from Germany, 
took me and MacCaw over the huts, where the 
Russians pass the night before leaving for Petro- 
grad. Splendidly organised, with chapel, baths, 
and dining-rooms. Then to the island in the river 
to the German huts. The same excellent organi- 
sation. A German prisoner, too ill to be included 
in the last two convoys, told me he was most 
comfortable and well looked after. At the top of 
the church tower is a small window which a king 
of Sweden had opened to see the Midnight Sun, 
being only fifteen miles from the Arctic Circle. 



NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE [on return journey to Petro- Sunday, 
grad\. After a last fried sole, rumbled in ' a Nov - I9 Dt 
tumble-down vehicle down the steep and totally 
unlit streets, in a terrific gale, to the wharf, and 
got on board at 10 p.m. 

Woke up at 6.50 a.m. and found we were still 
alongside the wharf. Blowing big guns. At 7.30 
we started, and I dressed so as to be ready to go 
on deck as soon as we had got out to sea, for on 
the Tyne it is forbidden for passengers to go on 



72 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 deck. From windows of deck saloon saw we were 
following the Christiania weekly mailboat, Bessheim, 
on which I had crossed in September. The gale 
increased as we approached the sea. Saw the 
Bessheim in difficulties outside. She suddenly 
turned round and heeled over, her stern being on 
the rocks. Big seas broke over her. We returned 
up stream and moored alongside another steamer. 
We were not allowed on deck all day. Captain 
gave me no hopes of leaving before to-morrow 
midday at earliest. This entailed my losing my 
compartments reserved everywhere for the direct 
journey to Petrograd. At 5 o'clock a Customs tug 
came alongside. I asked them to telephone the 
authorities if I might come ashore. They returned 
with the permission at 7 p.m. I left immediately 
with them, sliding in pitch-darkness down a rope- 
ladder in a Russian fur coat and pot-hat into what 
seemed a bottomless gulf. Landed with difficulty 
at North Shields pier, took an electric train to 
Newcastle, and arrived in London next morning. 

Saturday, Re-embarked at Newcastle-on-Tyne, after dinner 
ov ' 25 ' ' with my Canadian flying friend Lancelot Duke, 
at 10 p.m. for Bergen. Terrible crossing. 

Saturday, HAP AR AN DA. Met with the usual and persistent 
ec. 2. D. c j v jij tv f r om the Swedish authorities, who, every 
time I have passed through, have always been more 
than courteous. 

Sunday, Arrived Petrograd. 

M^d 3 D ^ ca ^ on t ^ ie Ambassador an d Lady Georgina 

Dec. 4. ' D. then to the Grand Duchess Vladimir's palace. 
Knowing it was a saint's day, found her at service 



AT THE KASAN CATHEDRAL 73 
where she was much surprised to see me. To 1916 
luncheon afterwards. Neva not frozen. Dec/ia. *%'. 

Heard on the highest authority from an Allied 
Embassy that Germany has made a categorical 
offer of peace. This was confirmed later by an 
equally eminent authority. The Neva frozen over. 

After service at the Grand Duchess's church we Sunday, 
were thirty-seven at luncheon. Grand Duke Boris, 3 
back from Persia, was there. Dined with the Grand 
Duchess, who read me a most pitiful letter just 
come from the Queen of Rumania, and afterwards 
talked most interestingly of her relations with 
Prussia, as a Princess of Mecklenburg. Deep snow ; 
first sledges out this evening. 

On foot to the Kasan church, where Te Deum Tuesday, 
was sung for the Emperor's name-day. All the Dec - *9- D - 
Embassies and the official world were present. I 
was allowed to enter, being known by the Secret 
Police. Hearing of the return of the Grand 
Duke Dmitri from the Front, wrote my name on 
him. Dined at the Embassy only English people. 

Went on to supper at Schubine's, where I found 
amongst many friends the Grand Duke Dmitri. 
I had not seen him for many months. He called 
me aside into another room, where he discussed 
with me at great length the whole internal political 
situation. Having had knowledge both of my 
loyalty and discretion, he confided to me the steps 
he thought must be taken to arrest the continued 
reactionary policy of the Empress, into which she 
was dragging the Emperor ; and how imperative 
was the removal of evil counsellors. 



74 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 Luncheon with Grand Duke Dmitri to see his 

Wednesday, T -, i n r 

Dec 20. D apartment, rearranged on the ground floor of 

his palace. At midnight returned to supper 
there. 

Friday, Strange things are happening here : the Emperor 

ec - 22 ' has exiled Princess Vassiltchikov, a lady of high 
birth, for writing to the Empress ! Are we back 
in Peter the Great's reign ? Where will it all end ? 
I have been warned of a drama which may soon 
happen. But I dare not breathe a word. Even 
my frequent visits to Europe might count against 
me ! 

Monday, At luncheon at Donon's, Savinski talked till half- 

Dec. 25. D. p ast three on the general unrest which prevails ; 
then we walked to the Foreign Office. Christmas 
dinner at the Embassy ; charades. I told the 
Ambassador of the departure of the Empress for 
the Front. 

Wednesday, Moscow. Arrived at 10.20 this morning. Lun- 
Dec. 27. D. c j ieon at Madam Olive's, with Princess Susie 
Belosselski and her little boy. With them to the 
celebrated old convent in which Peter the Great 
had his half-sister Sophie shut up, and where the 
nuns make a speciality of embroidery. To the 
Th6atre des Arts, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich marvel- 
lously mounted and beautifully played. 

Saturday, PETROGRAD. About 5 p.m. was asleep, when 
ec. 30. . g e y mour came . A friend in the police, whom he 
met in the street, told him Rasputin had been shot 
three times by Felix Yusupov. He did not know 
if Rasputin was dead. I telephoned to the Embassy 
but Lady Georgina was out. She rang me up at 



DISAPPEARANCE OF RASPUTIN 75 

5.40 to say she had just heard the report. Mean- 1916 
while I had already written to the Grand Duchess 
Vladimir. In the hotel the rumour was generally 
known by 7.15. To the French theatre, where in 
the Imperial box were the Grand Dukes Boris and 
Dmitri. A cousin of Felix Yusupov's was there, 
but knew nothing. Nobody knows anything defi- 
nite. It looks as if the warning I received on 
December 19 of a tragic denouement before December 
31 had come true. 

Glorious weather : 2 Fahrenheit. When I Sunday, 
kissed the Grand Duchess Vladimir's hand after 
Mass I said, " To-day even the sun is shining," but 
she replied, "We are not yet sure of the fact." 
We were thirty-four to luncheon ; the three Grand 
Dukes, her sons, also. Grand Duke Andre has 
just come back from the Front after two months' 
absence. 

Nothing definite known yet ; many stories, but 
all ending in the same way that Rasputin had 
disappeared. 

I left at 1.16 p.m. on foot for the Embassy : 
brilliant sunshine, in which the red Embassy was 
glowing. I found the Ambassador, Lady Georgina, 
Miss Meriel, General Hanbury- Williams, and Colonel 
Burn, who had brought the bag. I told them all 
I had heard about Rasputin's disappearance. I 
also told the General that I had written home ten 
days ago that the political situation would end in 
a tragic denouement. Whilst we were talking, there 
was brought in a copy of the Police Report * with 
* See Appendix III, 



76 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 the different arrivals, departures, and police calls 
at the Yusupov Palace that night. 

Every one went away and I sat with Lady 
Georgina in the corner drawing-room. Lady Sybil 
Grey called ; she said that Felix Yusupov had 
been on Saturday afternoon to the Anglo-Russian 
Hospital which occupies the first floor of the 
Dmitri Palace with the Grand Duke Dmitri, to 
have a fish-bone taken out of his throat. This 
was the first definite news of Felix Yusupov since 
the rumours of the murder. To inquiries at the 
Yusupov Palace the answer all day had been that 
he had left for the Crimea. 

From the Embassy I drove back directly to the 
Grand Duchess Vladimir's palace and asked to see 
her. I was shown in immediately. She was in 
the late Grand Duke Vladimir's cabinet de travail 
on the ground floor, where during the war she 
always dines and sits after dinner. I told her all 
I could remember of the Police Report, and then 
she told me the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich 
had been put under arrest an unheard-of thing, 
for since the murder of the Emperor Paul (1801) 
no Grand Duke has ever been put under arrest on 
a grave charge, and on that occasion the Emperor 
Paul lost his life for only threatening it. 

I went back to the Embassy and went straight 
up to Lady Georgina without being announced. 
She was alone, and I asked whether I might speak 
to the Ambassador. She took me to his room and 
he saw me at once. I told him of the Grand Duke 
Pmitri's arrest and that Felix Yusupov had tele- 



GRAND DUKE DMITRI AND RASPUTIN 77 

phoned to the Grand Duchess from the Dmitri 1916 
Palace, " // y a un malentendu" 

His Excellency was much impressed by the news 
and began to write his dispatch. I asked him 
whether I might take the Police Report to the 
Grand Duchess. He said, " Certainly, but bring 
it back at once." I then drove back to the Grand 
Duchess's palace and went in at once to her room. 
She read the document out aloud : nobody was 
there but I. 

When I again got back to the Embassy I went 
straight up to the Ambassador's room and handed 
him back the document. He left the room at the 
same time as I did, going downstairs with his 
dispatch to the Chancery. Going out I met Bruce 
in the hall, to whom I announced the Grand Duke's 
arrest. The Ambassador, before I left, asked me, 
if I heard any more news, to let him know. As I 
was dining at the Grand Duchess Vladimir's, who 
always retired at 10, I said I would telephone 
anything of importance. 

Wore my schuba for the first time 5 Fahren- 
heit and my clothes were covered with fur. 
Whilst I was being brushed in the antechamber 
the Grand Duke Boris came in, and we went 
together into the cabinet de travail^ where the Grand 
Duchess was sitting at her writing-table. We sat 
down to dinner at once, as he was going to the 
ballet. The Grand Duchess then said, " I tele- 
phoned to Dmitri Pavlovich, and a strange voice 
first answered me in English ; then he himself spoke 
to me. He swore that he knew nothing about the 



78 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1916 Rasputin affair ; that he had left the supper at 4. 
This was in reply to the Grand Duchess having told 
him that her sons were outraged at the thought of 
his being under arrest. He then said it was the 
Empress who had sent a General to put him under 
arrest ; that the General apologised for having to 
do an act which was not strictly en regie, but he 
" hoped the Grand Duke would submit." He also 
said that the Emperor was to arrive at Tsarskoe 
to-morrow, and declared that he meant to " raise 
hell." 

During dinner we were all petrified by the Grand 
Duke Dmitri's denying all knowledge of the affair, 
and saying that, although he had been to supper 
there, he had left before 4. 

When the Grand Duke Boris left to go to the 
ballet I went on foot to the Embassy. As it was 
early I thought I would go in person instead of 
telephoning. There were lights on the Embassy 
staircase, so I asked if I could see Lady Georgina, 
and was shown up to the Ambassador's bedroom ; 
he was just going to undress. I told him of the 
Grand Duke Dmitri's absolute denial of any share 
in the murder which, after all, is only natural, 
though he swore it on his own icon. If all the 
conspirators acknowledged their complicity on the 
telephone to their friends and relations it might 
be disastrous to the actual perpetrator or to the 
whole lot. 

I found the Ambassador very much perturbed 
and tired ; he had been confined to his bedroom 
for a week. He walked up and down the room ; 



CONCERNING RASPUTIN'S DEATH 79 

I sat by the fire. I wished the Ambassador " Good 1916 
night " and went and sat with Lady Georgina in her 
sitting-room. It was then 10.30. She was called 
to the telephone by Mrs. Beringer, wife of the 
Reuter correspondent, but he spoke to her. The 
only news he gave was that the police of the district 
where Rasputin lived had seen an automobile go 
to his house about 4 a.m., fetch him and take him 
away. This is the first actual news I had heard 
of the arrival of Rasputin at the Yusupov Palace, 
or rather of his departure to arrive there. 



NINETEEN SEVENTEEN 



NINETEEN SEVENTEEN 

I HAVE got such awful rheumatism in both 1917 
arms and both hands I can hardly hold a T^ s ^ ay ' 
pen. to the 

Rasputin was killed in the Yusupov Palace about 
7 a.m. Saturday, December 31. There were present 
Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, Felix Yusupov, and 
a Conservative member of the Duma, and two lady 
friends of Rasputin, who left, protesting, at 4 a.m., 
so the man had an agony of three hours. All this 
is from the Police Report which I have got. I 
happened to be in the very storm-centre. Grand 
Duke Dmitri was arrested by order of the Empress 
illegally, but he submitted, as it gives him a card 
in his hand. The Emperor arrived post-haste last 
night from Stavka. I have written minutely in 
my diary every detail. 

THE TRUE AND AUTHENTIC STORY OF THE MURDER 
OF GREGORY RASPUTIN, AS RECOUNTED TO 
ME ON JUNE 6, 1917, AT YALTA BY THE 
PERPETRATOR 

PRINCE FELIX YUSUPOV made the acquaintance 
of the notorious Gregory Rasputin because he was 
convinced that the removal of this man was abso- 

83 



84 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 lutely essential for the safety of Russia. The 
scene of the Rasputin tragedy was the Palace 
Yusupov, a long building with twenty-six windows 
on each floor, overlooking the Moika Canal. The 
apartments on the ground floor, which the Prince's 
parents had given to him and his wife, had been 
in process of redecoration since the beginning of 
the war. In the meantime they were using as a 
sitting-room the extreme corner room on the 
ground floor at the left end of the palace, as seen 
from the street ; and beneath it in the basement 
had been arranged a dining-room, in which were 
placed several Italian sixteenth-century cabinets 
and objets d?art of the same period. From the 
sitting-room on the ground floor a narrow staircase 
leads to the dining-room in the basement. At 
the sixth step from the top of the staircase, on 
the left, a small door opens into the cobbled fore- 
court of the house adjoining. This house also 
belongs to the Yusupov family, and its forecourt has 
trees planted along a wooden palisade which borders 
the Moika Quay overlooking the Moika Canal. 

The deed was definitely planned to take place 
before Friday, December 29, 1916, because Felix 
Yusupov was to leave next day with his two 
young brothers-in-law, to join his wife and spend 
Christmas in the Crimea with her family. On 
the fatal night there was no " supper-party." 
Felix Yusupov went himself to fetch Rasputin 
who had never before set foot in the Yusupov 
Palace and only with great difficulty persuaded 
him to come home with him and talk over the 



RASPUTIN AT YUSUPOV PALACE 85 

political situation. On their arrival the motor-car 1917 
drove into the forecourt of the adjoining house. 
They entered the palace by the small door and 
immediately went down to the dining-room in the 
basement. 

The Grand Duke Dmitri and M. Purishkevich, 
a member of the Duma, were at that time in the 
sitting-room upstairs on the ground floor, and the 
Police Report leaves no doubt that two ladies 
were with them, although neither they nor their 
friends have ever admitted that any ladies were 
present in the palace that night. Neither the 
Grand Duke Dmitri nor M. Purishkevich saw 
Rasputin while he was within the palace. 

Arrived in the dining-room, Felix Yusupov 
engaged Rasputin in a long conversation, in the 
course of which the latter positively asserted that 
the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna intended to 
make herself Regent on January 10 (N.S.). 

Rasputin, invited to refresh himself, drank a 
glass of red wine in which poison had been put. 
Felix Yusupov himself drank no wine, being a 
total abstainer. The poison having been bought 
some three weeks before, its strength had appa- 
rently evaporated, and it failed to take immediate 
effect. There ensued an interminable wait, during 
which the moujik, though he grew drowsy and 
dazed, did not die, so Felix Yusupov determined, 
as the night was now far advanced, to shoot the 
man outright. Accordingly he went upstairs to 
the ground floor to borrow Purishkevich's revolver. 
Returning to the dining-room below with the 



86 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 weapon held behind his back, he approached 
Rasputin, who was leaning over the supper-table 
half dazed, and, touching him on the shoulder, 
said, " On the cabinet at the end of the room there 
is a wonderful crucifix." Felix Yusupov was hold- 
ing the revolver in his left hand, but having Ras- 
putin now on his right side, quickly transferred 
the weapon behind his back to his right hand, 
and then shot Rasputin at close quarters through 
the left side, below the ribs. The moujik reeled 
and fell heavily back on a white bearskin, and 
Felix Yusupov, believing he was dead, left him 
lying there, and went upstairs to join his friends 
on the ground floor. 

The Police Report makes it evident that this 
was the moment when the ladies who had been 
entertained in the salon on the ground floor were 
persuaded to leave the palace. 

Felix Yusupov, after a short interval, in order 
to make quite sure that Rasputin was dead, 
descended the staircase and again entered the 
dining-room. Bending over the body, he was 
horrified to find that the eyes were not only wide 
open, but gleaming with tiger-like fury. Suddenly 
the wounded man raised himself on his elbows 
and struggled to his feet ; then, springing with 
amazing vitality on Felix Yusupov, seized him by 
the throat and tried to strangle him, pulling off 
his epaulettes in the melee. Finally disengaging 
himself, the wretched man made off by the stair- 
case with the instinct of a wounded animal to 
escape out of the trap into which he had fallen. 



MURDER OF RASPUTIN 87 

Finding that the door through which he had 1917 
entered the palace was unlocked, he passed out 
into the forecourt of the adjoining house, and 
then fell down exhausted in the snow. 

Meanwhile Felix Yusupov had rushed up the 
staircase after him and burst into the sitting-room 
to call Purishkevich, who at once came out into 
the forecourt and fired four shots at Rasputin, 
the number mentioned in the Police Report. Two 
of these must have missed their aim, as only two 
bullets hit Rasputin, one on the back of the 
head, and the other fired point-blank at his 
forehead. The lifeless body was picked up and 
carried back into the palace to await the return 
of the motor-car, in which, on arrival, it was 
placed, driven rapidly out to Kristovski Island, 
and thrown into a hole in the ice of the Little 
Neva. 

Felix Yusupov returned with the Grand Duke 
Dmitri to his palace in the Nevski and remained 
there, the answer to all subsequent inquiries at 
the Yusupov Palace being that he had " left for 
the Crimea." 

At the inquest subsequently held it was authorita- 
tively recognised that the shot fired in the dining- 
room must have been mortal. 

The police have not the right to enter a house 
where any member of the Imperial family is 
present. 

All the Imperial Family are off their heads at 
the Grand Duke Dmitri's arrest, for even the 



88 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Emperor has not the right to arrest his family.* 
It has never been done since Peter the Great had 
his son Alexei Petrovich arrested, and it was for 
threatening to arrest the Tzesarevich (Alexander I) 
that the Emperor Paul was killed.f 

Saturday, Here we are all expecting anything may happen. 
I won't write you all the gossip, mostly founded on 
lies, some on antiquated truths. Dmitri Pavlovich 
and Felix are kept under arrest, and when the 
Grand Duke Paul asked on Monday last for his 
son to be allowed to come and stay in his palace 
at Tsarskoe Selo the Emperor replied, " The 
Empress cannot allow it for the present " ! 

The Empress-Mother is still at Kiev ; she ought 
to be here, as her son still fears her a little (not 
very much). The Allied Embassies would like her 
back in Petrograd. 

Unluckily the bag goes out this afternoon, and 
I shall only have all the news at dinner as it is the 
Russian Christmas Eve and I dine ' at the Grand 
Duchess's. To-morrow I shall go to the Emperor's 
church at Tsarskoe Selo to see how they are all 
getting on down there. 

I have been to leave a Christmas present for 
Dmitri Pavlovich. As I arrived Boris Golitzin was 
leaving the house. The old butler had told him 

* The only cases of the kind on record are : (i) a distant 
relative of the Emperor Alexander II robbed his mother of 
her jewels, and (2) another youthful relative ran away with 
a ballet-dancer and was brought back from the frontier and 
reduced to the ranks. 

f The Emperor Paul's tomb in the Peter-Paul Fortress is 
. always ablaze with tapers, whilst that of his son, believed by 
the people to be cognisant of his murder, has none. 



DEPORTATION OF DMITRI 89 

Dmitri Pavlovich had gone out, but the house is 1917 
guarded and there was a sentry inside the door. 
Our Ambassador is very worried. It is real winter 
and the thermometer varies between 20 and 35 
of frost Fahrenheit. It's dreadful having two Christ- 
mases and two New Year's Days. My writing is 
unreadable because my arms are so bad, and until 
the cold goes I don't expect to get better. 

I telegraphed to Prince Putiatin at Tsarskoe to 
know whether I could hear Mass at Feodorovski 
Sobor to-morrow, Christmas Day, as we who have 
the entree to the church have to get special per- 
mission for the great feasts. 

At 8 to dine with the Grand Duchess. We were 
twenty-eight at dinner. I sat on the left of the 
Grand Duchess Victoria, just returned from Ru- 
mania ; the three Grand Dukes dined ; all the 
family looked very disturbed. During dinner the 
Grand Duchess Victoria told me that Dmitri 
Pavlovich had left for Persia. 

After dinner we all went into the ballroom, where 
there was a Christmas tree. The Grand Duchess 
Marie beckoned me to come to her, and told me 
the events of the day. She was very much upset. 
She told me that Dmitri Pavlovich had been 
deported at 2 a.m. that morning to Kasvin, on 
the confines of the Empire the Persian border. 
He had only been told at 9.30 p.m., and his carriage 
was attached to a 2.30 a.m. train. He left under 
arrest. He was accompanied by General Lyman, 
his military tutor from childhood, and by an officer 
who is responsible for his safe custody. This 



90 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 officer was obliged, much against his will, to under- 
take the charge. His regiment surfers from the 
insult ; the regiment of the Grand Duke wished 
also to take active steps, but were counselled to do 
nothing for the moment. The Emperor has refused 
to see the Grand Duke Paul, his father. His sister 
came from Tsarskoe to be with him. She said that 
he broke down for a few minutes just before leaving. 
Felix Yusupov was sent from the Dmitri Palace, 
where he had been under arrest since the murder, 
to a country place of his family south-east of 
Moscow. Neither of them can be communicated 
with either by letter or by telegram, nor can they 
communicate with any one. The Grand Duchess, 
with her two sons Kyrill and Andre, sat up until 
they knew he had left Petrograd. 

Her counsels prevailed that nothing should be 
done that night. Her other son, Boris, was at his 
house in Tsarskoe Selo. They did not telephone to 
him, fearing that in his anger he might do something 
rash. 

I heard to-day that the " Unmentionable " was 
buried at Tsarskoe Selo ; that the Emperor, 
Empress, and Heir Apparent * were at the funeral, 
also the Metropolitan Pitirim and Protopopov, the 
Minister of Home Affairs ; these two were both 
nominees of the dead moujik. He is buried in 
the park where a church was to be erected con- 
tiguous to one of the Empress's hospitals, and 
his body now lies where the altar will eventually 
stand. 

* The Heir Apparent was not present. 



INFLUENCE OF SIR GEORGE BUCHANAN 91 

I went to see the Grand Duchess at 6. She told t 

bunday, 

me that Mme. Derfelden, daughter of Princess Palei, Jan. 7. L. 
had been put under arrest.* She had been to 
Tsarskoe Selo, to the Christmas tree at the Grand 
Duke Paul's. When she got back she found all 
her apartments had been searched and the locks 
burst. Although, no popular revolution is expected 
yet, never has the situation been so bad. In Russia, 
after many arrests, assassination usually follows. 
Anything may happen. 

If only our Ambassador could see the Emperor, 
I feel sure he could place before him the real situa- 
tion. The Emperor has always listened to Sir 
George. Russia is the one country where indi- 
viduality counts more than in any other country 
I have lived in. There is no doubt our Ambassador 
has a position here which no other Ambassador has 
ever held, nor anybody else holds at the present 
moment. The meeting of the Duma on January 12 
will be a crucial moment, but the danger could be 
averted if the Emperor would only take the necessary 
steps. 

Had luncheon with the Grand Duchess Vladimir ; Monday, 
the Leon Radziwills also there, and Grand Duke J an> ' 
Boris. I took him all the newest " ragtimes " from 
London for his private band. Stayed on to talk 
to the Grand Duchess. She said she would like to 
dine next Monday at the Embassy, so I went there 
to tell His Excellency. 

It seems the Grand Duchess Serge wrote to the Thursday, 
Empress Alexandra, her sister, to ask her to come J an- "* L ' 
* For forty-eight hours only. 



92 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 to her convent * in Moscow for a month or so to 
regain the confidence of the people and to show 
them she had no desire to interfere in the Govern- 
ment. You may imagine how this proposal was 
met ! We are now threatened with a Regency of 
the Empire during the Emperor's absence at 
Stavka. If the worst has to come and She is 
prepared to take all risks better for the poor 
country it should come quickly ! 

As you must know, Dmitri Pavlovich and all the 
family are furious at their prerogatives being 
touched. No one has the right to enter their 
houses, and yet that poor boy's house was, by order 
of the Empress, filled with common soldiers. 

I think there is no doubt the " Unmentionable " 
had an agony of several hours. 

The meeting of the Duma is postponed to 
January 25. If dissolved they will all go to another 
town to meet. Then will come the great tug of 
war. It is the Etats Generaux over again. Don't 
be surprised at the most startling news any time. 
I wonder what and how much the English news- 
papers say. 

Thursday, Please forgive this awful scrawl, but rheumatism 
in my arms, wrist, and fingers prevent me writing 
properly. Last Sunday, Orthodox Christmas Day, 
I went to Tsarskoe, to the Emperor's church : all 
the family were there, a little worried-looking, after 
the events of the week the Emperor very drawn 
and white ; he was very still and looked straight 

* After the assassination of the Grand Duke Serge in 1905, 
his widow became Abbess of the Misericorde Convent. 



HARSH TREATMENT OF CULPRITS 93 

before him all the time ; only once he turned and 1917 
looked into the body of the church, and once, when 
the sun had come out, he looked up at the dome. 
Once both he and the Grand Duchess Olga, who 
always sits next to him, looked down their aisle 
for a minute or so. Probably the Heir Apparent 
was doing something to attract their attention, 
which happens often. 

The Empress was all in white and looked conges- 
tionnee ; I had never seen her so flushed before. 
The Heir Apparent is a beautiful boy and much 
grown since I saw him last in the summer. He 
drove away with his father and mother. 

Dmitri Pavlovich without his A.D.C. was deported Narrative, 
Sit 2 a.m. on Saturday, January 6, to the Persian 
frontier. News of him has been brought through 
by a faithful person. There was nothing to eat 
in the carriage, although he had been assured there 
would be. His destination was a secret. Even 
the engine-drivers, who were changed every two 
hundred versts, were only told the next stage they 
were to go to. He has arrived, we know, as far 
as Baku. His destination is Kasvin. 

As for Felix, he was put without food or atten- 
dance in a second-class carriage attached to a 
goods train, and took a day and a half, instead of 
ten hours, to get to Moscow ; his father-in-law, 
Grand Duke Alexander, met him there. I feel 
Felix is so clever he will get all he wants, whereas 
the other boy is always helpless and desolate ; he 
had une crise de nerfs, and completely broke down 
in the train next day in his famished condition. 



94 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Neither the two boys nor their servants were inter- 
rogated by the police or military authorities. 
They were simply deported. 

We all know where the moujik was buried, and 
how and when. It is disgraceful. What is really 
feared for the Imperial family is that the Empress 
may make herself Regent while the Emperor is away 
at Stavka. 

You don't know what it is to live in a country 
where lettres de cachet still exist ! 

Friday, Went to see Guy Colebrooke, and on the stair- 

case met the Ambassador, who had just come back 
from being received by the Emperor at Tsarskoe. 
His Excellency told me the Emperor had received 
him standing up in the large drawing-room, where 
one usually waits before being received. He was 
half an hour with the Emperor, and was able to 
tell him everything that he had hoped and in- 
tended to tell him. 

Though he was looking very tired, I could see 
how pleased he was to have got it off his mind 
like some one who had confessed and communicated. 
When he left, the Emperor shook him warmly by 
the hand and thanked him. The nomination of the 
new Under-Secretary for Home Affairs is as bad 
as it can be, and encouraged the Ambassador to 
speak more boldly than he had intended to. 

Luncheon at Donon's, where I met Savinski, 
ex-Minister at Sofia. He told me that Count 
Benckendorff, the Russian Ambassador in London, 
was dead. I at once sent a line to the Grand 
Duchess Vladimir, in case she had not already 




THE EMPRESS ALEXANDRA FEODOROVNA 



PETITION TO THE EMPEROR 95 

heard. Engaged to dinner at the French Embassy, 1917 
but later, being asked by the Grand Duchess, I 
had to excuse myself to the Ambassador. 

During dinner, while the servants were out of 
the room, the Grand Duchess told me that she 
had had drawn up and signed by all the Imperial 
family now in Petrograd a petition * to the Emperor 
appealing to the human side of Dmitri Pavlovich's 
case. This was handed to the Emperor last night. 

At half-past nine I left for the French Embassy. 
I had a long talk with Son Excellence, but he told 
me nothing that I did not already know. He had 
been received by the Emperor last Sunday, and 
found him white and drawn and altered, just as I 
had remarked in church the same day. 

On New Year's Eve at supper at Prince Michail Saturday, 
Gorchakov's I was told that the answer to the Im- *' an * I3 ' 
perial family's petition on behalf of Dmitri Pavlo- 
vich had come couched in the hardest terms.* 

St. Sauveur assured me the Grand Dukes had 
decided not to go to Tsarskoe Selo to-morrow, New 
Year's Day, to wish the Emperor a happy New 
Year. I doubted his news but, not being absolutely 
sure, did not contradict him. 

At the Grand Duchess's after church we were Sunday, . 
twenty-eight at luncheon ; none of her sons were ^ an ' I4 ' 
there. The Grand Duchess told me they had gone 
to Tsarskoe each in his official capacity to attend 
the Emperor's New Year reception. She also told 
me that the Grand Duke Nicolai Michailovich had 
come to see her the night before to say good-bye, 
* See Appendix I. 



96 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 having been commanded by the Emperor to retire 

to his estate in the South of Russia. 

Thursday, Dined with the Grand Duchess. She was most 
Jan. 1 8. . interesting, telling me about her early married life 
at Court, and about the Emperor Alexander II, 
who was devoted to her. He was kindness itself, 
although a martinet. She described the Sunday of 
his assassination how they were seated at luncheon 
in her palace when the wife of the concierge of the 
Millionaia entrance flung open the dining-room 
door, crying " He's dead ! He's dead ! " Nothing 
further could be extracted from her. Presently a 
man-servant ran in and said, "The Emperor has 
just been driven by dead in his brougham." 
The Grand Duke Vladimir immediately left for the 
Winter Palace in his carriage, which was always in 
readiness for him. The Grand Duchess started off 
as soon as her horses could be put to, and on 
arriving at the palace followed the blood-stains to 
the room where the Emperor had been taken. 
She found him lying on a bed still conscious, for 
he recognised her. To her horror she saw that the 
right foot was hanging by one long sinew. 

His kindness of heart cost him his life. When 
the first bomb had killed a Cossack of his escort 
and damaged the back of his carriage, the Emperor 
at once alighted, the coachman, entreating him to 
get in again, said he could drive him to the palace. 
The Emperor approached the Nihilist and asked, 
" What can I do for you ? Why do you want to 
take my life ? " The man only hurled another 
bomb, which exploded between the Emperor's feet. 



SAZONOV AMBASSADOR TO ENGLAND 97 

On Friday, January 19, Russian Epiphany, I , I ^7 
went to the Emperor's church at Tsarskoe Selo. Jan. 25. L. 
Since I was there last, on their Christmas Day, the 
whole place is overrun with secret police, which 
is something quite new. 

There are all sorts of forecasts of the outcome 
of the Rasputin tragedy. Though it has been dis- 
cussed fully and publicly and even in the Press, 
perhaps after all nothing serious will happen. There 
are rumours of discontent in the Guards Regiments, 
especially the Preobrajenski. 

When Pokrovski * went to Tsarskoe about the 
vacant London Embassy the Emperor said, " You 
have brought a list ? " Pokrovski answered, " I 
have brought only one name, sire." The Emperor 
said, " I also have only one Sazonov." Pokrovski 
said, " That was mine too ! " 

I went to the Catholic chapel of the Cour des 
Pages to the Requiem for Count BenckendorfL 
Our Ambassador, Sazonov, Pokrovski, the family, 
and many friends were there. 

Sazonov leaves in three weeks for London. 
Kyrill Vladimirovich has been sent on a naval 
mission to the Far North. Andre Vladimirovich 
goes for his health to the Caucasus ; so all the 
Grand Dukes are being gradually dispersed, in order 
to weaken their opposition. Nicolai Michailovich 
on his way to his fate passed by Kiev to see the 
Empress Marie, who adores him, but there is no 
news of her return. 

There is a big dinner at Grand Duchess Vladimir's 

* Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

G 



98 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 on Friday for the Crown Prince of Rumania, to 
which she has just asked me : as there are to be 
only young people, I am much touched. To-day 
I took Colonel Thomson to luncheon there. He is 
our Military Attache in Jassy, a great friend of 
mine. The Crown Prince of Rumania and General 
Hanbury- Williams were also at luncheon. 
Monday, The British Mission arrived this morning. I saw 

Jan. 29. L. Q UV Colebrooke downstairs and asked him to lun- 
cheon. He came with Thomson, also Princess Susie 
Belosselski and Princess Dolly Radziwill, in a private 
room at Donon's. Dined at General Nostitz's to 
meet the Grand Duke Boris. At 9.30 I left for the 
Embassy, where the British Mission were dining 
to meet the Ministers. I was the only guest invited 
after dinner ; no ladies were asked. Sazonov 
introduced me to Bark, Minister of Finance, who 
said he knew all about me. I talked to Grand Duke 
Sergei Michailovich. 

I shall wait till I come to England to bring my 
private papers on the murder. They are all in the 
Chancery for safety ; also a copy of the Grand 
Duchess's appeal to the Emperor with his answer,* 
and my diary. One is never sure what the police 
will do ! 

All the English newspaper telegrams about 
Rasputin's murder are incorrect. 

Tuesday, The English Mission has been to see the Emperor 

Jan. 30. L. _ w j 10 was i n tearing spirits and walked in after 

the reception and insisted on being photographed 

with them all. The Ambassador told me this. 

* See Appendix I. 



THE BRITISH MISSION 99 

They are all to dine there again on Saturday, which 1917 
was not expected. To-morrow, dinner at the 
English Embassy. 

Duncannon came up to my room for a chat. 
Sir Henry Wilson is much liked by every one who 
meets him here. 

I hear the Riga push cost us 95,000 men ; no 
artillery to support them, or Red Cross to bring 
away the wounded ; they were all frozen as they 
lay. 

As I was leaving the hotel at midnight to go to Saturday, 
supper at Princess Dolly Radziwill's,* I met most of 
the Mission coming back from dinner with the 
Emperor at Tsarskoe. Every one delighted with 
their evening. 

The Mission was at the ballet. All the National Sunday, 
Anthems were played. I talked for some time to Feb * 4< Dm 
Sazonov in his box. He told me he had been 
received by the Emperor and Empress. The 
Emperor had given him his signed photograph 
framed, with the dates of his Ministry inscribed. 

Luncheon at the Grand Duchess's, with Boris Wednesday, 
Vladimirovich, Sir Henry Wilson, Lords Brooke 
and Duncannon, and Captain Valentine, R.F.C. 
Sir Henry Wilson left at midnight for the Front 
for ten days. 

A telephone message from the Grand Duchess Saturday, 
asking me to go at 11.30 with her to meet the 
exchanged prisoners from Germany. Drove in her 
motor to the Viborg station. The train came in 
a few minutes after it was all most impressive. 
* Princess Dolores, m. Prince Stanislas. 



ioo RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 When the Imperial Hymn was sung after the 
1e Deum many of the soldiers broke down. They 
then had a large meal, at tables laid in the sheds 
built to receive the repatriated prisoners. 

Monday, Met the Ambassador, who was going to see 

Lord Milner just back from Moscow. Walking in 
the Millionaia, saw a motor-car surrounded by 
mounted police with drawn swords evidently a 
prisoner of some importance being conveyed to the 
Peter-Paul Fortress. 

Tuesday, Luncheon at the Grand Duchess's. Guy Cole- 

brooke and I got there just before the Am- 
bassador, who sat opposite to her. Lords 
Milner and Revelstoke, George Clarke, Sir Berkeley 
Sheffield ; also Princess Susie Belosselski and 
Knorring (diplomat). A charming luncheon ; the 
Grand Duchess was at her best. 

Wednesday, The Mission is leaving, and now we await calmly 
mais avec (Le granges inquietudes the 28th of 
February, the opening of the Duma. The trains 
to Moscow are stopped for the revictualling of 
Petrograd. The little boy at Tsars koe Selo has 
been ill with a chill on the kidneys, but is now out 
of all danger. Petrograd has been quite gay for 
the Mission. The Grand Duchess Vladimir was the 
only member of the Imperial family who entertained 
them except the Emperor. On separate occasions 
she received at luncheon the civil and the military 
members of the English Mission, and the French 
Mission on another day. She most kindly asked me 
to all. I had a most interesting conversation with 
General Castelnau after luncheon. Lord Milner 



STREET DEMONSTRATIONS 101 

made a good impression, and Sir Henry Wilson 1917 
cheered us all up. 

At 7 I took the train to Tsarskoe Selo to dine D. 

with the Grand Duke Boris. We were seventeen 
at dinner. He had expected the Englishmen, 
but the Mission had left. 

Drove with Sazonov from our hotel to luncheon Saturday, 
at the Grand Duchess's. She gave him her photo- Mar - 3> D ' 
graph, signed and framed, to take with him to 
London, saying, " I hope, as soon as the war is over 
to see it myself on your table at the Embassy." 

At 9.10 p.m. drove to the Nicolaiski Station to Sunday, 
see the Grand Duchess off ; she was leaving for ar< 4 ' 
Kislovodsk in the Caucasus. Kyrill Vladimirovich 
was there and many of her friends. 

Had luncheon alone at Donon's. Terestchenko, Wednesday, 
on his way out, sat down at my table. Had not 
seen him for nearly a year. Dined at the French 
Embassy ; heard there had been disturbances in 
the streets to-day and some tram-car windows 
smashed. 

Drove to the French Hospital. Just after Friday, 
crossing the Nicolai Bridge I met a demonstration ar * 9 ' 
singing the " Marseillaise." They were prevented 
from crossing the bridge, so turned back and went 
up the 8th Linea Street. I got out of my sledge, 
and telling the man to wait I joined them and went 
with them as far as the Bolschoie Prospekt. They 
were accompanied by Cossacks. They were not 
harassed at all, and the Cossacks chaffed them and 
talked to the children : all were on the best of 
terms. I wanted to see how they behaved and how 



IO2 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



1917 



Saturday, 
Mar. 10. 

Narrative. 



they were treated. Tout etait a V amiable. When 
I left them I walked back to my sledge and went on 
to the hospital. 

At 1.45 I heard a great noise outside the hotel 
and saw the Cossacks ride down the Michail Street 
and clear the people away, but as soon as the 
Cossacks had left the people came back, and a 
man addressed a crowd just in front of the hotel. 
Shortly afterwards I heard a crash, the breaking of 
the windows at Pekar's the cafe at the corner of 
the Nevski Prospekt under my hotel. The Cossacks 
then rode back down the street and the people ran 
away before them. I leaned out of my window 
and could see into the Nevski. 

I then dressed and went to luncheon at Donon's. 
Returning along the Nevski towards my hotel 
I talked for a moment to Savinski. The street was 
full of the usual people one sees of a Saturday 
afternoon on the Nevski. The Cossacks, un- 
mounted, were posted by the Moika Canal outside 
the Strogonov Palace ; where the Morskaia crosses 
the Nevski the patrol was going down to the end 
of the Prospekt. Returning up the Nevski I went 
on foot to my hotel. It was a beautiful day. The 
streets were quite normal and very full. As I 
turned down the Michail Street I saw, higher up 
the Nevski, a crowd collected at the Sadovia 
crossing whether troops or people I could not 
make out. Motor-cars and sledges were driving 
about ; there were no people off the sidewalk in 
the street itself. I went up to my room and added 
a postscript to a letter I had written to the Grand 



FIRING ON THE CROWD 103 

Duchess Vladimir in the Caucasus describing the 1917 
situation ; took the letter down to the porter to be 
sent by hand to her palace, went upstairs and 
immediately began to change my clothes, as 1 was 
going to a concert of the Boris Vladimirovich 
Orchestra in a hall in the Mochovaia. I had put 
on my boots and my trousers when I heard a sound 
which I knew, but couldn't recall. I opened my 
window wide and realised it was the chatter of a 
machine-gun ; then I saw an indescribable sight 
all the well-dressed Nevski crowd running for their 
lives down the Michail Street, and a stampede of 
motor-cars and sledges to escape from the machine- 
guns which never stopped firing. I saw a well- 
dressed lady run over by an automobile, a sledge 
turn over and the driver thrown into the air and 
killed. The poorer-looking people crouched against 
the walls ; many others, principally men, lay flat 
in the snow. Lots of children were trampled on, 
and people knocked down by the sledges or by the 
rush of the crowd. 

It all seemed so unjust. I saw red. I put on a 
jacket without tie or collar or greatcoat, rushed to 
my third-floor lift, where I was kept waiting some 
time. I thought, if I could rally the people, we 
could capture the guns. When I got downstairs 
I found the hall and doorway crammed. Only 
with difficulty could I get out. By now those who 
had crouched near the wall had got up and were 
running away. The guns had stopped firing. 
The street was almost empty ; there was nothing 
for me to do, so I returned to the hotel, finished 



104 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 dressing, and walked to the concert at the Mochovaia. 
All the sledges had gone home. There were only 
a dozen people there, who immediately left when 
I told them what I had seen. The authorities had 
warned the Grand Duke Boris not to go out. 

I don't know what provoked the gun-firing, for 
the Nevski was quite normal when I went into the 
hotel. Whether a demonstration had come dowTi 
from the Sadovaia or not I don't know, but the 
crowd who rushed down the Michail Street were 
mostly well dressed. 

There were three machine-guns between the 
Trinity Chapel and the Gastinny Dvor, which could 
rake Michail Street ; they were placed two in front 
and one behind. They were surrounded by soldiers, 
so one could not see them from the street. I saw 
- them from an upper hotel window. 

When I got back to the hotel at 6.50 the 
manager told me that, after I had gone out, the 
guns had been firing to clear the street, and that 
four people had been killed at the corner of the 
Nevski. Alma, the housemaid who looks after me 
so well, came to my room and said she had been 
all the time at a window that overlooked the 
Nevski, and when the machine-guns had fired a 
second time she had seen a woman and three men 
shot. 

A crowd had come down from the Sadovaia ; 
when they arrived outside the Municipal Duma 
opposite rny hotel, a man made a speech saying 
the people wanted the Emperor to know how much 
they were suffering. The police, not the soldiers. 



COSSACKS PATROLLING IN STREETS 105 

fired, killing three men : the woman was shot at 1917 
the corner of the street. The bodies were taken 
away either by the police or the soldiers ; one body 
was put in a sledge and driven quickly away down 
the Nevski. Alma saw all this. 

I walked to Donon's to dine with Albert Radzi- 
will and Frasso, who had come from Italy on a 
cinematograph propaganda mission. Afterwards 
we went on foot to see the Joseph Potockis, and 
sat there with them, discussing what I had seen 
in the afternoon. 

All the morning I was writing about the events Sunday, 

of yesterday. At 2 I went on foot down the Nevski xr ar 

' J Narrative. 

to Donon's. At the corner of Michail Street and 
Nevski I crossed over to see where the bullets of the 
police had hit the wall of the Municipal Duma and 
the shops alongside of it. The police had come up 
the Nevski from the Kasan Church, and had 
drawn themselves up under the windows of the 
" Europe," which give on to the Nevski. The 
people were unarmed and peaceable citizens. 

Going to luncheon I noticed there were no trams 
running, but in the Nevski there were a few sledges. 
The streets were full, and crowds of Sunday people 
walking down the middle of the street. There 
were patrols of Cossacks everywhere. The Cossacks 
after patrolling would stop at the corners of the 
streets, get 'off their horses and talk to the people. 
I witnessed no unpleasantness at all. 

Donon's very full. The usual Sunday band not 
playing. Talked to Princess Dolly Radziwill, 
Countess Kreutz, Prince Kudachev, and Prince 



106 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Boris Golitzin, who had been having luncheon 
together. Countess Kreutz asked me to come to 
the ballet that evening. On my way to the Hotel 
de 1'Ours in Big Stable Street found a patrol of 
cavalry Cossacks drawn across the thoroughfare, 
and people being refused permission to pass. 
I hugged the wall at the corner and managed to 
reach the hotel. On coming out with Madame 
Derfelden, nee Scheremetev, I saw the Nevski had 
been emptied of people. We heard that the 
police had been shooting the people near the Nicolai 
station. I proposed to go up the Nevski, but she 
hesitated. When she did consent to come, a 
single patrol asked us in dialect, not in Russian, 
to turn back. He was probably a Mohammedan ; 
Mohammedan troops have been brought expressly 
to Petrograd. 

So we went back down the Big Stable Street, 
across the Imperial Stable Place, and on to the 
English Embassy. There were many people about ; 
patrols of cavalry everywhere ; no sledges. At 
the Embassy I went in, Madame Derfelden pro- 
ceeding alone to the French Quay, where she lives. 
I found the Ambassador, his wife and daughter 
also Guy Colebrooke just arrived from Finland, 
where they had been for ten days' rest. As it 
turned out, their train was the last on the Finland 
line which was allowed by the police or the people 
to come into Petrograd. 

On the way back to my hotel I had to pass in 
front of the barracks of the Pavlovski Guards 
Regiment. There was much ferment amongst the 



SYMPATHY WITH THE POPULACE 107 

soldiers at the gates, and a great deal of very 1917 
animated conversation. The men who had been 
out on leave during the day were now coming back 
for the night. Some of their officers were urging 
them to go quietly into their barracks. Later the 
police came to the Colonel, and asked to be allowed 
to wear uniforms of his regiment. The soldiers, 
hearing he had consented, killed him. This was 
the first Guards Regiment in Petrograd that 
mutinied. The different Guards Regiments in 
Petrograd were composed mostly of reservists 
married men of between thirty and forty, and 
a few boys. 

Guy Colebrooke told me he was going to the 
ballet, so we arranged to dine at the " Ours." As 
there were no sledges we walked to the Marienski 
Theatre ; the house quite deserted. From there 
Countess Kreutz drove us in her automobile to the 
Leon Radzi wills' dance. The Grand Duke Boris 
was there. 

I had words with Boris Golitzin about the police 
shooting the people who, quite quietly, were asking 
for bread. He sneered, " You were very much 
upset yesterday at seeing a few people killed in the 
street. To-morrow you will see thousands ! " 
I replied, " It's damned hard lines asking for bread 
and only getting a bullet ! " 

Leon Radziwill * very kindly sent me home in his 

automobile at 4 a.m. The Nevski, as well as the 

other streets that radiate from the Admiralty, 

was being swept by searchlights from the Admiralty 

* Prince L6on, fourth son of Prince George. 



108 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Tower ; occasional bullets whistled up and down 

the Nevski. 
Monday, Fine weather. No street traffic or trams running. 

As I walked from the hotel to have luncheon at 
Narrative. 

Madame Derfelden's, I passed in front of the 
Engineer Palace, in which the Emperor Paul was 
assassinated in 1801, crossed the Fontanka Canal, 
and went down to the French Quay, where she lives. 
During luncheon we heard incessant firing all round 
the house. On leaving I walked as far as the 
Liteiny Prospekt, which is always the storm-centre 
of every agitation in Petrograd. There was a 
good deal of desultory firing. I returned along 
the quay to the English Embassy, catching up 
Tereschenko. 

At the Embassy I heard that the Olives who 
live opposite the Tauride Garden, where the Palace 
of the Duma is situated expecting friends for 
luncheon, had telephoned to say they were quite 
cut off, and hoped nobody would risk the journey. 
That immediately excited me to go, so I started off 
along the French Quay. I had just got to the 
Liteiny, and was in the act of crossing the street, 
when machine-guns began to fire, so I lay down in 
the snow, and a fat woman of the people lay across 
my legs till the machine-guns had finished firing. 
With difficulty was I able to extract myself from 
the snow and the old lady. Plato defined bravery 
as the knowledge of what one ought and ought 
not to fear. I then bolted across the street and 
continued my way to the Olives'. Along the 
Schpalernaia Street the first troops were coming 



ANNIHILATION OF THE POLICE 109 

back from having sworn allegiance to the Pro- 1917 
visional Government. 

I wanted to get news of the British Red Cross 
Depot, over which the Ambassadress presides, 
and found it had not been looted shutters up and 
everything in order. After that I made my way 
up the quays because the crowd was threatening ; 
and, having seen a boy officer killed because he 
would not surrender his sword, I avoided the broad 
streets that run towards the Duma, as they were 
continuously being swept by machine-gun fire. 
Walking along the edge of the river I witnessed a 
fierce battle going on across the Neva on the 
opposite quay. 

In my faltering Russian I asked a non-com- 
missioned officer who was walking in the deep snow 
whether I was to go straight on or turn to the 
right for the Potemkinskaia. He replied in Russian, 
" Straight on." A few minutes after, to my utter 
astonishment, he said in purest English, " This is 
the hell of a mess ! " He then told me that his 
mother was English, and we continued walking 
together until he left me at the Olives' house. 
On our way we looked in at the Duma to see 
the troops " swearing allegiance " before they 
marched off to patrol the streets against the 
police, though by this time there were no police 
in the streets they had either been killed or 
taken prisoners, or were in hiding. All day 
there was unceasing firing of rifles and machine- 
guns. 

[Part of narrative of this day lost.] 



no RUSSIAN DIARY 

Glorious weather. On foot to the Embassy, and 
Man 13.' D. along the quay to see if anything had happened to 
the Vladimir Palace. Found everything all right. 
On to the Hotel Astoria, which had been completely 
gutted. 

This morning between 9 and 10, as an orderly 
demonstration was passing by the Hotel Astoria, 
a shot was fired from one of the upper windows of 
the hotel. The crowd immediately opened fire on 
the hotel, stormed the entrance, and swarmed 
all over the building on every floor. None of the 
women were molested, but several officers were 
killed and the whole of the ground floor was 
completely wrecked. Several of my acquaintances 
who were stopping there were given shelter at the 
Italian Embassy on the opposite side of Isaac's 
Place. From there I went on to Potsdam Street to 
see General Freedericksz's house, looted and set on 
fire by the mob this morning. It was completely 
burnt out, only the outside walls remaining. Even 
their collie dog was bayoneted in the hind quarters. 
Countess Freedericksz only got away just in time. 
Returned to Embassy. Great excitement fighting 
in all the streets. Everywhere rifle and machine- 
gun firing, especially on the other side of the Neva. 

Left the Embassy later with Locker-Lampson 
in one of his cars. He dropped me at the Fontanka. 
On leaving me the car was shot through. 

Walked back to the hotel, keeping close to the 
houses for fear of being shot. So to bed and had 
just gone to sleep when the new military police 
came and made me get out of bed while they 



THE EMPEROR AT BOLOGOE in 

searched my rooms for hidden firearms. Interludes 1917 
of rifle and machine-gun firing all night. 

Zero Fahrenheit snowed all day. I heard no Wednesday, 

firing before 8.;o. Streets quiet, but many soldiers ^ ar> I4 ' 

J _ T7 , T ^ J Narrative. 

walking about. When I went out at 10.50, 

Edelson, of the Anglo-Russian Bank, overtook me 
and told me he had been distributing bread to the 
people and that the Emperor had arrived at 
Tsarskoe Selo. I walked with him as far as his 
bank. A Siberian regiment was marching up the 
Nevski ; they had been met at the station by 
the Petrograd troops and were on their way to the 
Duma now the seat of the Provisional Government. 
I looked in at the Votive Church for the Emperor 
Alexander IPs requiem. Only I and a few moujiks 
were present ; last year all the Court was there. 

At the Hotel de 1'Ours I heard that the Emperor 
in his train had been stopped at Bologoe, which is 
six hours by fast train from Petrograd ; also that 
he had been to Moscow from Moghilev ; but this 
I doubt. Most likely, instead of taking the direct 
route from Moghilev to Petrograd, the train went 
across country and joined the Moscow line at 
Bologoe. 

From the Ours I walked down the street on to 
the quays and so to the Embassy. From Lady 
Georgina's boudoir on the entresol we saw quantities 
of troops crossing the Troitza Bridge, who turned 
along the quay in front of the Embassy on their 
way to the Duma to support the Government. 
In the night all the Krasnoe Selo troops, and all the * 
Tsarskoe Selo troops, had marched or come in 



ii2 RUSSIAN DIARY 

19 J 7 trains to Petrograd ; also many of the Kronstadt 1 
sailors. There were batches of sailors marching 
about, mostly orderly. 

At I went upstairs to luncheon ; there was 
nothing to eat in my hotel. On the staircase met 
the Ambassador and Locker-Lampson. I told 
His Excellency all I had seen and heard. He 
was inclined to believe it true that the Emperor 
had been detained at Bologoe. After luncheon 
the Daily Chronicle correspondent came to the 
Ambassador with the news that a delegation was 
leaving for Bologoe to inform the Emperor that 
his brother had been appointed Regent until the 
end of the war. He told us that new Ministers 
had already been chosen, with Prince Lvov as 
President of the Council ; that the food-supply 
would now be all right, as the town had been 
organised into districts ; that 500 officers, including 
many Generals, had been to swear allegiance ; 
that in the Duma Protopopov had been received 
with laughter and supreme contempt, and sent to 
the Peter-Paul Fortress. 

I left the Embassy intending to go to the Fon- 
tanka to see the Michael Gorchakovs, but in front 
of the Summer Garden Chapel I met Vesey, who 
told me there had just been a battle in the Liteiny 
Prospekt, the police still firing machine-guns. 
I returned at once to the Embassy to tell General 
Knox, who was going that way to the Duma. 
Outside the Embassy a man was saying that 
machine-guns had again been firing in the Nevski 
and down Michail Street. Knox had told me at 



DEATH OF STACKELBERG 113 

luncheon that Protopopov had had machine-guns 1917 
put on all the corner houses of Petrograd, and that 
the troops had taken forty-four machine-guns off 
the roofs yesterday ; but evidently there are still 
some left, for I had heard one firing close to the 
Ours at midday. 

I left the Embassy to walk back to the hotel, 
and in the Millionaia heard a General had just been 
killed, and later that when some soldiers forced 
their way into General Stackelberg's house, he had 
shot at them with his revolver and then ran out 
of the house to the Palace Quay, jumping over the 
parapet on to the frozen Neva, where he was shot. 

When I got back to the hotel I found our street 
quite empty and nobody except residents allowed 
to enter the hotel. All passports had to be shown. 
This I had implored Berg, the manager, to order 
two days ago, as every Germanophil or suspected 
person naturally flies to an hotel to hide himself. 
I was passed in and found the Commandant in the 
hall giving orders. I asked Berg to translate for 
me, and I requested the Commandant to put a 
guard on the roof so that there could be no mistake 
about machine-guns being there. A police machine- 
gun had been firing down our street and the Nevski 
fifteen minutes before, but could not be located. 
I went upstairs to see Sazonov, and sat with him 
twenty minutes. He had seen an old lady shot in 
the street by the police machine-gun. // etait 
outrage. I went out again to the Ours by Little 
Stable Street, where there had been large patches 
of blood in the snow when I passed in the morning. 

H 



ii4 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 The falling snow had now covered them : it had 
been snowing since 12. 

At the Ours I only heard lies, and from there 
I went to call on the Polovtsovs. They had gone 
to the Foreign Office, so I went on there to see 
Madame Tatistchev,* and found Madame Polovtsov 
and several friends. In a few minutes Peter 
Polovtsov and Madame Ignatiev, whom I had 
just met in the street, came in. They were saying 
that Madame Virbova had died of measles, that 
the Empress had complained there were no troops 
in Tsarskoe Selo, that she asked for some one 
responsible to be sent there, that Rodzianko had 
himself left for Tsarskoe with two Members of the 
Duma. 

The French Ambassador called, and after staying 
twenty minutes took me in his automobile as far as 
the English Embassy my first drive since Friday. 
He told me Bark and his official staff of the Ministry 
of Finance had been arrested. In the hotel I was 
told 3000 people had been shot in all. One wonders 
how many more the police would have killed unless 
the troops had joined the people ! The news is that 
Stiirmer died in the night ! Countess Freedericksz, 
who is very ill, was taken out of her house just 
before it was set on fire, and passed the night on a 
stretcher in the Guards' Hospital. Her daughter 
appealed to the Ambassador for her to be taken in 
at any English institution, so it was arranged by 
the English Chaplain, who at luncheon to-day at 

* Wife of the Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs formerly of the Russian Embassy in Paris. 



THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS 115 

the Embassy told the Ambassador she had been 1917 
removed in a sledge and stowed away at the top 
of the English Nursing Home. 

2 Fahrenheit. Lovely morning, very cold wind. 
Snow being cleared away. Usual people in the 
streets. I washed my windows, which were very 
dirty. No bread ! 

Seymour came to see me and told me the situation ; 
was getting serious not in the streets, which werei 
quieting down but amongst the Social Democrats, 
who were throwing printed inflammatory mani- , 
festos out of automobiles. We discussed, and he * 
agreed to, a proposal I made to acquaint the Social 
Democrats of the Allied nations with the gravity of 
the position here, and ask them to telegraph to their 
Russian comrades. We went out together down 
the Nevski, which seemed quite normal ; people 
walking, but no traffic. The dead horse was still 
at the corner of the Little Stable Street. 

Seymour left me at the Ours, where I saw Frasso. Thursday, 
He had been at the Duma yesterday and had seen' Mar - *5- D - 
the Grand Duke Kyrill march in at the head of the 
representatives of the Navy to support the new 
Government. He had also heard that Rodzianko 
had not gone to Tsarskoe Selo to see the Empress. 

I went on to the Polovtsov's and found four 
Foreign Office men who had had luncheon there. 
From that moment I began to realise how serious 
the situation was getting. They told me the 
Emperor had left Bologoe in his train and had been 
heard of at or near Pskov. Madame Polovtsov was 
very anxious and worried. I went to the Embassy. 



n6 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 The streets very full still quiet, but groups of 
people everywhere. The Ambassador came down- 
stairs. As I helped him on with his coat I told him 
of the project Seymour had been to see me about. 
He said he had received a letter on the same subject 
fjand had already telegraphed. Just then he was 
I called to the telephone, and when he came out said 
the Emperor had abdicated the Heir Apparent 
was to reign under the Regency of Michail Alex- 
androvich. As he went out, Wilton * came in 
with no news. 

Lady Georgina came down and I helped her 
arrange rooms for Raikes, King's Messenger, and 
eight officers w T ho were expected from Romanov. 
Somerset, a King's Messenger, was also moving 
* into the Embassy. He had been staying at the 
Astoria and saw the red flag hoisted on the Winter 
Palace. Presently Raikes arrived with the officers 
and the bags and a lot of our submarine sailors. 
The sea journey had been good all the way, and 
after the North Cape as smooth as glass ; but the 
railway journey had been terrible. No accommo- 
dation in the train and eight nights without changing 
their clothes ! As they were leaving their port a 
ship caught fire, illuminating the whole country 
and making a weird effect on the snow. General 
Poole came in from the Duma and told the Am- 
bassador the situation was very grave. I helped 
to carry the bags up. 

On my way to the Foreign Office I met a hearse 
with an oak coffin coming from the Million aia 
* The Times Correspondent. 



SITUATION AT FOREIGN OFFICE 117 

the first funeral I have seen since the beginning of 1917 
the Evoution ; the Revolution began to-day ! 

At the Foreign Office I found, besides Princess 
Michail Gorchakov and Countess Alexander Schu- 
valov, a number of men. Amongst them was 
Etter, the Russian Minister to Persia, whom I had 
not seen since his return to Petrograd. He told me 
that there was no confirmation of the Emperor's 
abdication that the Foreign Office had also been 
telephoned to for information that the actual 
Government could not get in touch with him. 
Etter had had luncheon on Monday with Boris 
Vladimir ovich, who was leaving at 3 for Tsarskoe 
Selo, so as to see the Emperor the moment he 
arrived. Savinski described his morning at the 
Astoria his room riddled with bullets, and how 
he went to the Italian Embassy, where the Am- 
bassador most kindly received him. 

Just before I left the Foreign Office, Tatistchev 
came into the drawing-room. He had been at the 
Duma since 10 in the morning. He said there was 
no news of the Emperor that the situation was 
most precarious and " hung on a hair." All the 
Foreign Office men had identification papers given 
them as a precaution. 

When I got back to the Europe I found the 
guard had been doubled and Meserve, the American 
banker, told me that guards had been put at all 
the banks. In the hall I met General Poole, who 
asked if I had any news. I repeated what I had 
heard at the Foreign Office, that the situation was 
most critical. He said, " That is just what I told 



ii8 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 the Ambassador." I dined with the Meserves and 
played bridge afterwards. Charlier, of the Belgian 
Consulate, came in at 9.45 and said he had taken 
the Belgian Minister to the English Embassy for a 
conference with the English and French Ambassa- 
dors, and at 10 he had to go and fetch him. He 
returned at 10.45 and said the situation was 
slightly better than earlier in the evening, and they 
hoped the crisis might be weathered, but it was 
still acute. 

I heard from the National City Bank clerks that 
Stackelberg did run away from his house, but was 
shot crouching behind a lamp-post on the Palace 
Quay ; that after the soldiers shot him they 
stripped him naked and left him in the middle of 
the road. The patrols rode over his body as it lay 
there two hours. I had passed along the quay at 
midday, and as the snow on the Neva had not 
been trampled, I think this must be true. 

I also heard there that the Empress had been 
placed under guard by a friendly officer, who thus 
prevented any question of soldiers or people 
molesting her. The soldiers of Tsarskoe Selo 
looted all the wine-shops, but next morning asked 
their officers to take them to Petrograd. The 
trains did not go yesterday to Tsarskoe Selo for the 
first time. Countess Kleinmichel had managed to 
escape yesterday before they went to arrest her in 
her house. The soldiers drank all her wine, and 
she was arrested this afternoon at the Chinese 
Legation. Also heard that General Knorring,* 
* It was his cousin, 



THE NEW GOVERNMENT 119 

my friend the Grand Duchess Vladimir's equerry, 1917 
had offended a soldier at the club and been shot on 
the staircase ; that General Schebeko was asked to 
give up his sword and 1000 roubles to those who 
wished to arrest him, which he did ; that General 
Nostitz was arrested, taken to the Duma, and 
released. 

Madame Voyeikov came to the Embassy while I 
was there, about her mother, Countess Freedericksz, 
who is staying in the English Nursing Home. 
The troops had visited the home. After leaving 
the Foreign Office I went to the Ours, but Frasso 
had not come back from the Duma. He is Deputato 
Italiano, and they let him assist at the seances. 

i Fahrenheit. Sunny morning. The streets Friday, 
being swept and the snow carried away on the Mar> I6< D ' 
usual horse drays. 

10 a.m. The old man who keeps a music shop 
opposite has reopened it after six days. Wood is 
being brought on horse sledges to the house 
opposite. Bennett brought me writing-paper and 
told me there were many groups of people every- 
where and much revolutionary conversation and 
talk about arresting those who don't agree with the 
speakers. 

At 11.15 on g m g downstairs found Skirmunt 
(Conseiller de I'Empire) in the hall. He said the 
new Government was composed of the most 
intelligent men in Russia. On my way to the 
Embassy, near the Votive Church,., met Bunting, 
Permanent Secretary to Ways and Communications. 
He told me the nomination of Prince Lvov as 



izo RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 President of the Council and Minister of the 
Interior was excellent that he was a man who was 
listened to and respected by all classes. 

At the Embassy I found Lady Georgina ; the 
Ambassador had gone to the Foreign Office. 
Whilst we were talking, Williams, of the Daily 
Chronicle, came in. He thought the situation 
clearer, but by no means settled. He said the 
Minister of Justice, Kerenski, was a good appoint- 
ment that he was the cleverest lawyer in Russia 
that in the Duma last night about 8 p.m., whilst 
the Extreme Left were shouting for a Republic, 
Kerenski came in and said, " Comrades, I am 
Minister of Justice." They roared out, " In what 
Government ? " He said, " The Emperor has 
abdicated and Michail Alexandrovich is to be 
Regent ! " More shouts for a Republic. He 
answered, " I was born a Republican and I shall 
die a Republican ; but Russia is not ready yet for 
that form of Government, and when the war is 
over which we all intend to win then the will 
of the country will be followed." 

After leaving the Embassy I went to the Ours 
and had luncheon with Frasso, who had been at 
the Duma till 5 yesterday. He had nothing new 
to tell. In the afternoon found Madame Polovtsov 
just going out, so we went together down the 
Morskaia Jewish students were pulling down the 
eagles over the shops and over the Yacht 
Club. We went and saw Mary Hartmann, wife 
of the Colonel of the Horse Guards. There 
were many young officers of the Horse Guards , 



ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR 121 

Madame Tatistchev and Princess Gorchakov 1917 
came in. 

We heard the Emperor had abdicated for himself 
and his son (which is not legal), and that Michail 
Alexandrovich had refused the Regency. We went 
back by Count Freedericksz's house, which is com- 
pletely gutted, along the Potsdam Street to Isaac 
Square, and down the Morskaia across the Nevski 
to the Winter Palace, where the Red Flag is flying 
and the eagles on the big gates are covered with 
red cloth. The big coat of arms is still on the large 
entrance gate. We then went on by the Millionaia 
to the Palace Quay. The flag of the Imperial 
Navy is now flying on the Peter-Paul Fortress in 
i place of the Emperor's flag. From the Palace Quay f 
> we heard volleys being fired across the river. f 
' I afterwards understood it was the police being | 
\J6hot against a wall. 

I never saw Petrograd look more beautiful 
brilliant sunshine, cloudless sky, and yesterday's 
snow not swept away. At the Embassy I found 
Lady Georgina very busy, as a guard of thirty-six 
young men of the Corps des Pages had been 
appointed to guard the Embassy. I went and 
helped her to arrange the two rooms given to them. 
They were all sons of well-known families and mostly 
quite young. The Ambassador was receiving them. 
Knox came back from the Duma and said Michail 
Alexandrovich had refused the Regency, so they 
were in a great fix as to who was to be head of the 
Empire until the end of the war. The Ambassador 
. in reply to my inquiries said that things were going 



122 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 from worse to worst. During dinner at Prince 
Constantine Radziwill's, an officer of the Etat- 
Major came in with a typed copy of the Emperor's 
abdication, which Skirmunt translated into French. 
I found it a little difficult to grasp, but it seemed 
to me that while the first part referring to the war 
was very fine, the part about handing over the 
power to his brother was illogical. Can one hand 
over something which has already been taken 
away ? 

The Etat-Major officer said he was at the Duma 
when the Countess Kleinmichel was taken there. 
She was brought in between two enormous sailors. 
When they arrested her at the Chinese Embassy 
she offered the soldiers cigarettes, but they said 
they didn't want any nonsense like that they 
wanted her \ She was taken from the Chinese 
Embassy on a horse dray to the Duma. On 
Wednesday evening the Chinese Legation had 
telephoned to the English Embassy that the troops 
were battering at their doors. What ought they 
to do ? Having owned that Countess Kleinmichel 
was there, they were advised to open them im- 
mediately. She has since been released from the 
Duma. 

I heard that Empress Marie has left Kiev in an 
automobile ; that a guard has been placed on 
Michail Alexandrovich's apartment ; that the 
abdication of the Emperor was countersigned by 
Count Freedericksz ; that the Empress was in bed, 
suffering from violent hysteria. 

The Ambassador went on Thursday to see the 



FOOD SCARCITY 123 

Grand Duchess Xenia in her palace. She was in 
a great state of mind. Nicolai Michailovich who 
had been banished to his country estate in January 
was already back in Petrograd Thursday night. 

The streets everywhere crammed with orderly 
crowds. The wood-drays and a few sledges in the 
streets some shops open. 

6 Fahrenheit. Deep snow fell in the night ; Saturday, 
still snowing hard, with high wind. I found a 
sledge at the door and drove to the Embassy. 
Flurries of snow almost impossible to see. Lady 
Georgina gave me some sardines and jam, there 
being nothing to eat in the hotel. 

I went 11.50 to the Embassy before luncheon in 
a sledge, and brought back Head (secretary) with 
me to the Europe. I had seen Skirmunt (Conseiller 
de P Empire) on my way out, who said the new 
Ministry was safely established ; that they were 
sitting at that moment ; that the position had been 
very difficult the night before, as Milyukov and 
Guchkov had wished to resign in fact, had re- 
signed for several hours. 

After luncheon at the Europe I went in a sledge 
to see Princess Dolly Radziwill. Whilst I was 
there they telephoned to say that Schubine had 
been arrested. 

At 8 I went on foot to dine with the Polovtsovs. 
Bunting dined ; his brother, a general, had been 
killed at Tver, of which he was Governor, for 
refusing to give up his sword to the soldiers. 

Polovtsov told me that Milyukov had made a 
very good impression at the Foreign Office ; that 



124 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Pokrovski was still living there, as he could find 
no apartment to go to. 

When Guchkov and Schulgine arrived at Pskov 
to ask the Emperor to abdicate, he received them 
at once and brought out of a drawer from his 
writing-table three sheets of writing-paper, with 
the substance of his abdication already type- 
written. He said his decision to abdicate had 
been definitely taken the day before, and he had 
drawn up certain leading points. For two whole 
hours the envoys worked together at the Act of 
Abdication, and two copies of it were signed by 
the Emperor and countersigned by General Freed- 
ericksz. The envoys then left in the special train 
that had been given to them at the Warsaw station 
in Petrograd on no authority but their own word. 
On their return to Petrograd the soldiers tried to 
take away Guchkov's copy of the Abdication Act, 
which they all wanted to see and read new-born 
Liberty ! The other copy is in the hands of General 
Russki. The document Guchkov brought back is 
to be handed over solemnly to-morrow, Sunday 
morning, to the archives of the Foreign Office. 

There has been no official announcement as yet 
as to whether the names of the Emperor and the 
Imperial Family are to be omitted from the Divine 
Liturgy each priest is to follow his own judgment 
to-morrow. 

Goremykine, the former Premier, is very ill and 
has asked for a priest. The medicines and remedies 
which had been sent from his house to the Peter- 
Paul Fortress never reached him. 



VISIT TO TSARSKOE SELO 125 

The Reds demand the heads of Protopopov and 1917 
General Beliaev for handing over machine-guns to 
the police. Pitirim, the Metropolitan, who was 
arrested, has since been released. Kokovtsov, former 
Minister of Finance, whom I knew at Salsomaggiore 
in 1913, was arrested in the hall of the Hotel de 
1' Europe, but immediately released with apologies. 
There have been no arrests maintained of those 
who were not directly responsible for reactionary 
politics. In Moscow they say only two people 
were killed. To inquiries at the Danish Legation 
about the Empress Marie Feodorovna it is replied, 
" She is well and at Kiev." 

I walked home at midnight up the Nevski 
everything quite peaceful. On the windows of the 
newspaper office was posted up in large letters, 
" Nicolai Alexandrovich Romanov [sic] has left 
for Livadia." How are the mighty fallen ! 

8 Fahrenheit. After luncheon, alone at the hotel, Sunday, 
I decided to go to Tsarskoe Selo and drove to the 
station. The train was very full. When I arrived 
I took a sledge and drove along the long avenue 
and crossed the Petrograd chaussee by the old 
fountain and went through the Convoy Cossacks' 
quarters to the Feodorovski Sobor, where I have so 
often been to service with the Emperor and his 
family. I heard there had been much fighting 
here, but all was quite quiet now like any other 
Sunday. The streets everywhere were full of 
soldiers and the public. Before the church I 
stopped and got out. A child on skis was playing 
in the snow ; the trees sparkling in the brilliant 



126 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 sunshine. I then continued by the road along which 
the Emperor comes from the palace to the church. 
The roadway, cleared of snow, was as well kept as 
before. My old friend who sweeps the leaves was 
not at his corner, but the mounted Cossacks were 
in their places, and the usual policeman at the 
park gate which is rarely or never used and at 
the palace gate three policemen in their grey 
uniform ; each of them had a white armlet. 

I drove on to the old palace and then along the 
park to Prince Putiatin's house, where, having no 
cards, I wrote a word for him. I saw his servant 
was much upset. He explained to me the Prince 
had gone away, but I did not realise he had been 
arrested until the Grand Duke Paul told me. 
Prince Putiatin had been to see the authorities ; 
in his absence General Ivanov had arrived and, 
using the Prince's typewriting machine, had 
written a manifesto saying he had been sent from 
the Front by the Emperor to take the lead against 
the insurgents. The soldiers coming in and finding 
what had been written without the Prince's know- 
ledge, waited till he came in, and arrested him. 
He is now lodged at the Riding School next to the 
Municipal Duma (Town Hall). 

From there I drove round the Grand Duchess 
Vladimir's palace and gardens, where I had spent 
so many happy days, and found everything in 
order, with sentries at the gates and the front door, 
as before. 

I wrote my name on the Grand Duke Paul and 
sent in my card to Princess Palei to know if she 



THE EMPRESS AND THE ABDICATION 127 

would like to see me. Her son came out, said 1917 
they were at tea, and asked me in. I found the 
Grand Duke tnerve mais pas abattu, and Princess 
Palei unhappy. I told him all I had seen and 
heard in Petrograd and the state of the town to-day. 
He told me that it was he who had announced to 
the Empress that the Emperor had abdicated 
that she had known nothing whatever that she 
was completely broken down, but dressed and 
walking about that the little boy and the two 
younger daughters had quite got over their measles 
that the Grand Duchess Olga had bronchitis as 
well as the measles, and Grand Duchess Tatiana 
was also very ill. 

Princess Palei told me that at the Mass at the 
old parish church where the Empress Elizabeth 
had a fit (1760) and was too heavy to be carried 
away all the names of the Imperial family had 
been left out, and that the priest cried when he 
gave her the pain benit. 

The Grand Duke asked for news of Boris Vladi- 
mirovich or Kyrill Vladimirovich. On my way to 
the station I drove to Boris Vladimirovich's house, 
rang the bell, and asked to see Bennett, his English 
servant ; but he took so long to come that I wrote 
my name with the date, and left. There was a 
good deal of firing last night at 10. 

They began to clean the tramway lines at 9 a.m., Monday, 
but owing to Saturday's heavy fall of snow, and Mar> I9< D ' 
snow all to-day, there was much to do. In St. 
Isaac's Place, soldiers were also clearing away the 
snow. Bought half a pound of butter for 90 kopeks 



128 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 instead of I rouble 75 kopeks the price before 
the Revolution. At 2 to the Polovtsovs and found 
his brother Peter had been appointed Secretary to 
Guchkov, the Minister of War. At 4.30 to the 
Embassy. Lady Georgina had been in the morning 
to see Grand Duchess Victoria, who was down- 
hearted and cross. 

Tuesday, 2 Fahrenheit. Woke up at 9 after twelve and 

a half hours' sleep. To see Lady Sybil Grey, who 
is leaving to-morrow with Somerset for England 
via Bergen. She was out. Went on to the Embassy 
to leave my letters for the bag. Heard excellent 
French and English war news there. At 11.25 
the first tram went by. 

Monday and Oh ! Archie, we have had a week ! As you may 
Mar- 8 19-20 i ma g me > I have been in the streets all through the 
L. to Sir revolution constantly on my stomach in the snow 
w ^ t ^ ie P^ ce machine-guns firing over me. You 
would have laughed to see me lying in the snow 
in the middle of a street with a fat woman across 
my body and the machine-guns raking the street. 
I am very, very tired. I saw a great deal and also 
heard a great deal of first-hand news, all of which 
I have written down from hour to hour. 

I just stepped down to Tsarskoe Selo yesterday 
after luncheon to see what was going on. There 
had been much fighting there, but all was quite 
quiet now, as on any other Sunday. 

I then went on to see Paul, the Grand Duke ; 
he had seen the Empress in the morning. She was 
calm, she realises their position, and what is 
more her own want of judgment. 



SOLDIERS SUPPORT THE REVOLUTION 129 

The first firing by the police was in our street at 1917 
5.15 p.m. on Saturday, March 10. Until Wednes- 
day the 1 4th, a complete upheaval. By Thursday 
the police had been beaten and the Emperor had 
abdicated. The new Executive Government only 
wanted a Constitutional regime, but things have 
gone so far it will probably have to be a Republic ; 
still, Russia is a box of surprises. 

We have been passing through hell and I don't 
suppose we are out of it yet. If the workmen keep 
the soldiers on their side, order will not be re- 
established, there being no police to protect the 
peaceable citizen. Yesterday two priests were 
mauled a thing which had not happened before. 

The first tram for ten days has just gone by. 
The post began again this morning. 

The fear is that the present Liberal-Radical 
Government may become Radical-Red. Michail 
Alexandrovich upset everything by not accepting 
the Regency which was offered him. His wife was 
away at Gatchina, or probably it would have been 
otherwise. 

I was at the Duma when the first three regiments 
" came over." I never once saw a drunken soldier. 
Tuesday, March 13, was the worst day. The people 
had seized guns from the arsenal and were firing at 
anything and anybody. In the Nevski there is 
hardly a broken window except from bullets, and 
no shops looted. Rumour has it that " Alexandra 
Feodorovna Romanova " says : " If only the Duma 
had been prorogued a week earlier, all this would 
never have happened ! " 

i 



130 RUSSIAN DIARY 

J 9iy It is too soon to judge of details, but all agree 

it will be impossible for the Emperor and his family 
to stay in Russia. Do you think we shall see them 
at Cannes as we did the Caserta ? * The Executive 
Government regret that matters have gone so far. 
All they wanted was a Constitutional Empire. 

To think of the magnificent patrimony God gave 
the Emperor and how it has been frittered away ! 
He never changed a muscle of his face while the 
Abdication Manifesto was being drawn up in his 
train. 

Thank God ! my Grand Duchess had left a 
fortnight before for the Caucasus. I was to have 
left last night with her son Boris to join her. God 
only knows how she will get back, poor soul ! 
We have no war news except that Bapaume is 
taken, which is cheering. I am very active but 
horribly tired and feel very, very old much older 
than at the Battle of the Marne, September '14. 

(Later.) I have just heard the Emperor is on 
his way back to Tsarskoe Selo ; the idea is to send 
them to England, the home of liberty and of all 
refugees. He asked to be allowed to go to Norway. 

(Later.) No fresh news. The trams running, 
some restaurants open, but of course no police ; 
I shall stay on. I have been very active the last 
two days, and am already friends with the new 
Minister of War's private secretary, so perhaps 
I shall get my work through. The general im- 
pression of the new Minister of Foreign Affairs is 

* Count Caserta, of Naples, heir to the last King of the 
Two Sicilies. 



THE DOWAGER EMPRESS 131 

" intelligent, but not strong." Luncheon to-day at 1917 
the Embassy, now becomes normal. Cold and 
sunny. Our good war news cheers one up. If only 
Lord Kitchener were alive to know it ! 

Letter from Tsarskoe from Grand Duke Boris's Wednesday. 
English servant saying that he had a trustworthy 2I * 
messenger who could take anything I wished to 
send to the Grand Duke at the place where he 
then was. 

I heard at the Foreign Office that the Empress 
Marie had telegraphed there in English on March 
12: "Where is my eldest son ?" that the 
Princess Nicolas of Greece telegraphed there 
to-day for news of her mother, Grand Duchess 
Vladimir ; that the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich 
had been telegraphed to by the Executive Govern- 
ment that he could return to Russia whenever he 
chose and go wherever he liked ; that last night 
large fires had been lit at the foot of the column 
in the Winter Palace square to melt the snow and 
earth and enable a pit to be dug for the burial of 
the victims of the Revolution. At midnight this 
was stopped by order. The Workmen's and Sol- 
diers' Committee then asked if they could be buried 
in the Summer Garden ; no answer was given. 
Every serious question is postponed as much and 
as long as possible. In the meantime, with the 
severe frost, there is no danger from the unburied 
dead bodies. 

The large coat of arms over the main entrance 
to the Winter Palace is still uncovered, but the big 
crown on the top of the palace is covered with red. 



132 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Zero Fahrenheit. Took a sledge at the hotel. 

The Driver, in a rude and insolent tone of voice, 
demanded five roubles for what before would have 
cost me I rouble, and a Russian 60 kopeks. I 
repeated in amazement, " Five roubles ! " and got 
into the sledge. Infuriated, he scowled fiercely at 
me, and refused to start for several minutes. All 
the way he kept on repeating, " Five roubles," 
mimicking my accent. On arrival at the Ours, 
I just gave him 70 kopeks. He stood aghast, but 
took it like a lamb. 

Luncheon with Constantine Radziwill to meet 
his cousin Princess Dorothy, who had arrived from 
Paris the night before, after six days at sea, from 
Hull by Lerwick to Bergen. 

Friday, Passing across the Foreign Office square, found 

the Imperial coat of arms and the two eagles from 
the smaller gates, and the great crown on the 
roof of the Winter Palace had been removed since 
last night, when I passed at 6.15. Along the 
Morskaia a regiment marched with its band play- 
ing the " Marseillaise " over and over again. The 
news from the Russian trenches is bad utter ruin 
of all discipline and the wholesale deposition of 
officers, if not worse ! This is from the Dvinsk 
region. 

Saturday, To-day the Allies recognised the Provisional 
Mar. 24. Government, to whom, through the abdication of 
the Emperor, their Embassies have become auto- 
matically accredited. At our Embassy I saw the 
Ambassador, who had been ill in bed for three days, 
preparing to go to the Council of State to announce 



EMPEROR AND EMPRESS ARRESTED 133 

England's recognition. I heard later that his 1917 
speech was very severe, but much to the point. 

General Kornilov, who is responsible for the 
safety of the Emperor and Empress, and who put 
the Empress under arrest for sending a telegram in 
cipher to the Emperor before there had been 
no question of their arrest asked the Minister of 
War to send an officer competent to fulfil the duties 
required of one in constant contact with the 
Imperial family. The officer sent has been working 
at the Etat-Major in Petrograd since the beginning 
of the war. He is to live at Tsarskoe Selo, opposite 
the church of the Old Palace, on the ground floor 
of Count BenckendorfFs house, having other 
officers with him. He has been instructed to call 
the Emperor " Majesty," not " Imperial Majesty." 

Some three hours after the Emperor's arrival 
at Tsarskoe Selo a crowd of workpeople, with 
several machine-guns, arrived at the palace to find 
out whether the Emperor had really returned, and 
asked him to show himself. It was arranged with 
Count Benckendorff that a deputation of them 
should come into the big hall, and that the Emperor 
should walk across it from one room to another. 
As soon as they had come in, the Emperor, accom- 
panied by Count Benckendorff, walked from one 
room to the other across the end of the long gallery. 
He never turned his head. The deputation in- 
voluntarily uncovered. The crowd then left. 

The Grand Duke Alexei has quite recovered. 
His sailor is always with him. Count Benckendorff 
is under arrest, but is allowed, with his wife, to live 



134 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 in the palace, and is in attendance on the Emperor. 
Only le personnel douteux has been sent away ; 
most of the servants are still there. The Emperor 
is allowed to walk in the park, but always accom- 
panied by an officer. He sweeps the snow off the 
paths to occupy himself. He has the face of a dead 
man, though his fine eyes still gleam ; he shows no 
emotion at all he has never shown emotion even 
during the most trying situations of his life. 
I grieve to have to write it of so good a man, but as 
Emperor, through all this terrible time, he has not 
made un seul beau geste. The Empress is quite 
calm. They are not separated, as the newspapers 
say. Her evil genius, Madame Virbova, is ill with 
measles in the palace. She will be taken away under 
arrest as soon as she recovers. 

Dining at the French Embassy I heard that the 
Minister of Justice Kerenski is the only member 
of the new Government who makes any impression 
of having real force of character. The position is 
in some ways less strained, but every day the Reds 
become more exorbitant in their demands they 
want the Emperor and Empress to be brought to 
trial, and not allowed to leave the country. Any- 
how, it would take at least a fortnight before 
anything could be arranged for their departure 
and much may happen in that time. 

The telephone direct to the Executive Govern- 
ment which the Duma had given Her has been 
taken away. As long as they remain here there is 
bound to be distrust and unrest. I suggested 
Balmoral to the Ambassador which, after all, is 



BREAK-UP OF THE ARMY 135 

not England, but Scotland. A moment might come 1917 
when their presence in England might hurt the 
Entente. The children are still ill though better 
which complicates matters. 

The Kyrills are behaving tactlessly ; he is 
attacked by all parties for his attempts to curry 
favour with the powers that be, at the expense of 
his family. Kyrill Egalite \ A Radical newspaper 
said, " Only rats leave a sinking ship ! " 

Our old friend Mita, calm, and covered with red 
bows ! The streets are normal and the victims 
to be buried by their relations, not by the Govern- 
ment. 

The Workmen's and Soldiers' Committee is 
impossible ; but every day will strengthen the 
hands of the Provisional Government, if only the 
army remains on the side of order. Whole regi- 
ments are leaving the Front and walking off to 
their homes. 

One dines in morning clothes en citoyen. The 
food question is still acute and there is only soldiers' 
black bread. The post comes fitfully, no news- 
papers have been delivered yet. Over a million 
letters were destroyed at the General Post Office. 

The cold always continues, and snow most days. 
4 Fahrenheit. The longest winter since 1808. 
I wish the spring could begin. 

When shall I ever see you again ? Many things 
may yet happen here worse than what we have 
already gone through. 

At 12.30 Valentine, of the English Royal Flying Sunday, 
Corps, with his Cossack orderly, arrived from Mar>2 5- D - 



136 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Moscow to ask for instructions from the Minister of 
War, whether his job at the Moscow aerodrome is 
to continue under the new Government. The 
hotel was crammed, so he dressed and had luncheon 
in my apartment, where I found him busy eating 
on my return. He told me that at Moscow he had 
helped to defend his friends against the soldiers 
who, intoxicated by the notorious First Order, were 
assassinating their officers. 

The officer in attendance on the Emperor told me 
His Majesty had asked permission to telegraph to 
Hanbury- Williams, and a telegram had been sent 
telling the General how the children were. The 
Emperor said he must learn to play " Patience " ; 
before, he never had any leisure, now he has too 
much. Madame Narischkine, Grande Maitresse de 
la Cour, is living in the palace, having voluntarily 
placed herself under arrest, in order to be near the 
Emperor and Empress. 

Rasputin's body was dug up at Tsarskoe Selo on 
the night of March 22-23. I* had been embalmed 
and looked as if still alive. It was stripped and 
insulted by the soldiers, afterwards put on a motor- 
trolley and brought to the Imperial stables in 
Petrograd and burnt at Udilni, fifteen miles north 
of Petrograd, between 3 and 7 yesterday morning. 
When pulled out of the Little Neva the body was 
found, on official examination, to have three shot 
wounds one in the side, which was mortal ; one 
in the back ; and one on the forehead, which was 
discoloured by the powder. There was no dagger 
wound. The medal found on it at Tsarskoe Selo 



THE BALLET UNDER NEW REGIME 137 

has been lost. It was taken off by the soldiers. 1917 
The disfigurement of the face was caused by 
grapnels used in dragging the corpse out of the 
water. 

Our Ambassador, looking better, was more Wednesday 
pleased with the situation. He had good news of 
the Dvinsk-Riga front and of the moral of the 
troops there. 

Crossing the Champs de Mars, watched the 
soldiers digging the graves for the victims. 

In the afternoon had another row with an 
iswoscbik, who was on the hotel rank and refused 
to take me. There was a great crowd. I said in 
French to a lady who was there that I had lived 
twenty years in Republican France, and that there 
cab-drivers were the servants of the public. She 
translated this to the crowd, and the man was 
sent off the rank. 

As I happened to be at the last representation of 
the Imperial ballet, I went this evening to the first 
representation of the ballet under the new order. 
I was there before the curtain went up, at 7, an 
hour earlier than formerly. In the ground floor 
Imperial stage box on the left, where the Grand 
Dukes always sat, were several lady dancers and 
one man. Over their head, in the first box, where 
the children of the Grand Dukes used to go, were 
a Jew and a Jewess. The opposite ground-floor 
stage box was empty. The box over that 
formerly reserved for members of the Imperial 
household was occupied by eleven people and a 
child all strangers to each other ! The great 



138 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Imperial box in the centre of the grand tier was 
unoccupied until the second entr'acte, when a man 
and woman of the people came and sat in it. 
It disgusted me. The " Marseillaise " was played 
at the beginning of the second act and encored. 
At the third act the turning down of the lights 
before the conductor took his place obviated 
another repetition of the " Marseillaise." In the 
ballet of the " Sleeping Beauty," a King and Queen 
and a Princess danced by Smirnova all wore 
crowns ! I left at 9.15 before it was over, and 
easily found an izvoschik ; there are plenty now 
on the streets. 

I was told that at the end a man with long hair 
and a red tie and a soldier harangued the house 
from the Imperial stage box on the first floor. 
Many people went on to the stage and mixed with 
the dancers and sang the " Marseillaise." 
Thursday, Saw a regiment marching to the Winter Palace 
square to see General Kornilov, the Military 
Governor of Petrograd. I heard that Guchkov 
has left for Stavka to settle the trouble about the 
Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich, who refuses to 
leave, insisting that he is just as much a general 
as the others, and that although his command 
has been taken away, he is none the less a general 
that the Empress exclaimed, " How can I 
believe what they say about Voyeikov, when all 
they say about me is false ? " that she suffers 
much from oppression on the chest and has con- 
stantly to sit down while talking that the Grand 
Duke Alexei runs about everywhere, and had a 



GRAND DUCHESS VLADIMIR ARRESTED 139 

French lesson this afternoon with his tutor. I have 1917 
direct news from the palace. 

The newspapers this morning announce the Friday, 
sequestration of the apanages and lands belonging JJ^ init- ' 
to the Imperial family, and what is still worse mate friend 
the arrest of the Grand Duchess in her villa at j^uchels 
Kislovodsk in the Caucasus. Their story is that Vladimir. 
she had given a letter for her son Boris to a general 
who was going to Stavka ; that she had written 
to say the only hope for Russia was in Nicolai 
Nicolaievich. The general was arrested en route, 
and the letter was found. 

I am terribly upset, but trying not to worry 
about it, because there have been many temporary 
arrests, and after an explanation the persons 
arrested have been set free. I feel quite sure that 
she has done nothing for which she can be attacked. 

(Later.) No further news of the Grand Duchess. 
As long as she is under arrest no one can see her, 
otherwise I would have gone to the Caucasus, 
but if she is let out I shall go at once. Nothing in 
the newspapers about Boris's arrest last night. 
I seem to have been the only person who knew, 
as it was a lady friend of his who telephoned me. 
Nicolai Nicolaievich, with Vladdy and Nicky Orlov 
in his train, has left Stavka for the Crimea. He is 
not even allowed to fight. Olga Orlov came on in 
another train with Grand Duchess Nicolai and her 
two nieces to Kiev, where they went to a convent, 
but there is no news yet whether they have joined 
the others in the Crimea. 

All the news from the Russian Front is better, 



140 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 and the Army seems gradually coming round to 
order, and I think will sooner or later work entirely 
with the Provisional Government against the 
ultra-Reds. What is most needed is a head it 
don't matter who ! 

The cruellest thing the Emperor did to his country 
was to abdicate for the Grand Duke Alexei. He 
had no right to do it, and if it had not been done 
everything would have gone much more easily and 
smoothly for Russia. I think the day is not far off 
when the Army and the people, excited by German 
influence, will come to loggerheads ; then there 
will be a bloody carnage. I shall not go out 
those days. 

Dorothy Radziwill came back full of potins, 
how the French hated the English, etc. If she 
don't take care she will get deported, as this 
Government is most anti-German and will stand no 
nonsense. 

I know the officer in charge at Tsarskoe Selo 
and so I hear what is going on. The Emperor 
always thought they would be allowed to stay in 
Livadia or leave the country. God only knows 
what will become of them. The Kyrills are in a 
great state. Poor things ! Their English nurse 
has typhoid fever, and no one to take her place. 
Their front door is still barricaded and has a red 
flag. Two regiments with bands playing the 
" Marseillaise," one marching up the Nevski and 
the other in the opposite direction, have just passed, 
all in perfect order a comfort to see after the 
absence of order of ten days. The burial of the 



FELIX YUSUPOV 141 

victims may cause disturbances and we are advised 1917 
to stay in that day, but I shall just go and have 
a look. 

Good-bye, dear, I have written instructions, if 
anything happens to me here, that all my papers 
are to be sent to you. 

Felix Yusupov has just been to see me ; he says Saturday, 
the Emperor and family ought to be sent away for ar> 3I ' 
the safety of Russia, and should be kept under 
surveillance till the end of the war ; otherwise, he 
said, there would always be the fear of Her corre- 
sponding with Germany. 

Felix is working with the Army here to promote 
order and discipline. Things seem to be going 
better, and there is hope that the Army, once 
returned to order, will keep in with the Government, 
and have no truck with the workmen which is 
all one can ask. 

There is a question of the " Boatmen's Volga 
Song " being made the National Anthem. The 
red flags get fewer each day ; to me they are most 
irritating surely the Russian tricolour is quite 
good enough. 

Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich went in his 
train from Tiflis to Stavka. The Government 
comes back to-night. If they can only keep in ! 
I think they will now. 

I have so much to write about but I can't keep 
my thoughts together. Felix's visit has switched 
me off. I must go to the Embassy now. I write 
down everything I hear, and once it's written 
am like a hen with her egg ; I forget all about it. 



142 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 I believe no letter can be forwarded either to or 

from the Imperial family. They still pray for 
Empress Marie in the Kiev churches. 

The regiments march about the town with bands 
playing the " Marseillaise " and red banners with 
" War to a Victorious Finish." The authorities 
are being very clever about the burial of the victims. 
While the dead civilians are being buried quickly 
and quietly, the dead police are left. There can be 
no public funeral for the police, the men who were 
the cause of everything. 

Sunday, I met to-day Prince Belosselski-Belozerski, father 

April i. D. of p rincess Qlga Orlov. He told me that the 

Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich, accompanied 
by Prince Vladimir Orlov and his son Nikky, had 
come in his train from Tiflis to Stavka, and that the 
Grand Duchess Anastasie Michailovna, accompanied 
by her two nieces (the youngest fiancee to Nikky 
Orlov) and Princess Olga Orlov, had gone to a 
convent. 

The Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich had left 
Stavka for the Crimea. There was no news of the 
ladies. 

The Ministers, with the exception of Prince 
Lvov, went on Friday to Stavka and return to 
Petrograd to-morrow, Monday night, April 2. 

I had often wondered how such an excellent 
Government had been called together when the 
Duma was in a state of absolute chaos and every- 
body surexcite. Prince Belosselski-Belozerski told 
me the facts which he had from an unimpeachable 
source : 



CONSTITUTION FOR RUSSIA 143 

Rodzianko in the month of December had 
arranged with the Emperor that a Constitution 
should be given to Russia. A list of Ministers was 
drawn up, and an order was given at the Winter 
Palace to prepare the State rooms for the occasion 
of the announcement and the reception of the Duma 
on Tuesday, December 19 December 6 (O.S.) 
St. Nicolas, the Emperor's name-day. When 
the Empress was told what he intended to do 
she sent him off to the Front. He left on Sunday, 
December 17. The list of Ministers who were to 
have been the first under the New Constitution is 
that of the Provisional Government of to-day. 

Bennett, who has been stud-groom thirty-seven 
years in the service of the Empress Marie, and who 
lives in the Anitchkov Palace, received an order 
from the members of the Duma to be prepared to 
leave the palace on April 14. The next day he was 
told he could stay on and that his wages would 
continue to be paid to him.* There are two 
Italians and one Frenchman also under the same 
conditions. 

I dined at Tsarskoe Selo last night, on the ground Narrative 
floor of the Lycet, with the officer who is responsible 
for the safety of their Majesties. Our dinner, 
which was the same as that served to the Emperor 
and the suite, was brought from the palace, a 
couple of hundred yards away, and warmed up 
here. 

* On his leaving Russia (November 9, 1917) the Government 
paid him, in lieu of notice, the sum agreed upon in the original 
contract with the Empress-Mother. 



H4 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 The officers in attendance are allowed a bottle of 

wine a day, and Count Benckendorff gives the 
order for brandy. We had Hennessey brandy 
bottled 1909. All the wine in the Imperial cellars 
is bottled in Russia ; the bottles have the Imperial 
arms in the glass. 

The Grand Duchesses Olga and Tatiana came 
downstairs yesterday for the first time, and went 
to vespers in the palace chapel ; their father gave 
an arm to each. The Grand Duchess Marie is 
dangerously ill with pneumonia on the top of 
measles. The Emperor and Empress have been all 
day with her. She could only breathe with oxygen- 
bags. Professor Federov came from Petrograd to 
see her. The two doctors of the palace and the 
Swiss tutor invited the professor and the officer 
accompanying him to lunch in their rooms, which 
they did. This is against the rules. 

The Grand Duke Alexei is quite well and has 
his French lessons. Mr. Gibbs, the English tutor, 
who was away when the family was arrested, had 
asked permission to go into the palace ; this had 
been refused. The Emperor and Empress dine in 
the big playroom of the Grand Duke Alexei on 
the first floor. The dinner-tables are taken in 
there all ready laid. The Empress hardly eats 
anything, only chicken. There is only one dinner 
cooked for everybody in the palace. The suite, 
which consists of Madame Narischkine, Count 
and Countess Benckendorff, and her son Prince 
Dolgorukov and the two demoiselles cfhonneur, 
dine and live on the first floor of the right 



DESTITUTION OF IMPERIAL FAMILY 145 

wing, over the apartments of the Grand Duchess 1917 
Sergei. 

The servants, who number 163, sent a deputation 
to the officer in charge to know whether they are to 
be kept as prisoners all the time the Emperor is 
there. A suggestion has been sent to the Minister 
of War that the servants from the other palaces 
should take their places at the end of a month, and 
then every month they should be changed. Many 
of these servants are married and have their families 
living out of the palace. The actual body-servants 
of the family were not included in the deputation. 

The Emperor asked to be allowed to see Prince 
Victor Kotchubey, the head of the Apanages, in 
order to put the financial question on some sort of 
basis. There is no money at all in the palace. 
In course of conversation Count Benckendorff said 
the Emperor had no money abroad, and that the 
private fortune, including that of the children, 
amounted to very little. 

The Tsarskoe Selo municipal authorities are as 
ultra-Red as Versailles in 1789. They had planned 
and had begun to dig a grave in the large square 
before the Old Palace, but a telephone message to 
the War Office brought a general by the next train 
from Petrograd who forbade it. The Empress was 
grateful that this had been done. 

The Emperor is a fatalist. He is so pleased to 
be with his children, and to have the heavy burden 
of responsibility he had inherited from his father 
lifted from his shoulders, that he does not realise 
the great danger both he and the Empress will run 

K 



146 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 when the State trials of the former Ministers begin. 
The uneducated masses will never be able to dis- 
tinguish between the treasonable designs of the 
Ministers and the Emperor's unconscious acquies- 
cence, or realise his great love of Russia. He still 
thinks he will be allowed to leave as soon as the 
daughters have recovered. He would like to go to 
Norway. 

Every three days the regiment which guards them 
is changed for another Tsarskoe Selo regiment, and 
the officer who came to-day asked that he should 
be allowed to see those guards, as he is respon- 
sible for their safety and must know who is in the 
palace. It is now arranged that on changing guard 
the officer will be presented to the Emperor this 
has become a rule. 

Each time the guard is changed there is a regular 
scrimmage amongst the soldiers as to who should 
be on guard in the palace and who should be outside 
in the park. Every one desires to be near the 
Emperor, such is the love of the Russian for his 

Little Father. 

, 

Thursday, The burial procession of the victims of the Revo- 
April 5- lution in the Champ de Mars began to pass the end 
of Michail Street along the Nevski at 8.40. During 
the next three hours I saw only four coffins go by, 
and there were in all only twelve coffins in that 
procession which passed up the Nevski. An auto- 
mobile with four people in it was in the procession ; 
it contained the Grandmother of the Revolution. 
Opposite the Municipal Duma three stripling 
Militia youths rushed up to it and stopped it. An 



BURIAL OF VICTIMS 147 

officer who was at the head of the next company 1917 
quickly walked up to them, very red in the face, 
stamped his foot, and ordered them off. 

The procession was organised extraordinarily 
well in companies, and to regulate the distances 
between them there were men or women carry- 
ing small white flags on poles who signalled down 
the line for advancing or halting. At times the 
procession would be on only one side of the Nevski, 
but generally there were distinct companies on 
either side who halted or advanced simultaneously. 
At the end of the Michail Street seven or eight 
onlookers linked together and joined in behind the 
different companies. This I afterwards learnt had 
been allowed, and was announced in the news- 
papers. I regret not knowing it, as I would have 
joined them. 

There were many bands ; I only heard played 
the " Marseillaise " and Chopin's " Funeral March." 
The people constantly sang a song with a simple, 
harmonious tune but sad, and from time to time 
the Prayers for the Dead were chanted. When 
the captains of the different companies gave the 
order all heads were uncovered. Some one in the 
procession called out to a man in the crowd near 
me to uncover. 

The Peter-Paul Fortress cannon were fired for 
each coffin placed in the grave. I believe many of 
them were empty, the relatives and friends having 
already buried their own dead. Sometimes a simple 
plank of wood was carried alongside of the coffins 
to represent another victim who had already been 



148 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 buried. The dead were not all carried together, but 
in different parts of the procession as they happened 
to come from the different quarters of the town. 

Never have I seen such perfect order, nor a 
procession or demonstration of people better orga- 
nised. The proceedings from beginning to end bear 
striking witness to the self-control of the Petrograd 
populace. No trams, carriages, or sledges were 
allowed all day. The procession went on until 5 
in the evening. It snowed fitfully in the morning, 
and afterwards the thermometer marked 48 Fahren- 
heit without sunshine. The streets in a terrible 
state from the thaw. 

Friday, I went this morning to visit the common grave on 

April 6. D. t j ie Qj ianl p S j e M ars> which is quite close to the 

Embassy. The coffins were still uncovered. I 
counted over 150. I believe there were in all 168 
anyhow, there were not 200. Cement was all ready 
to be put over them, and soldiers were placing 
planks along, across the coffins. A woman kneeling 
by a coffin, which she frequently kissed, was saying 
her prayers and crossing herself. I was surprised 
at no part being taken by the clergy on the route, 
but heard afterwards that they had not been invited 
to attend, as they had allowed machine-guns to be 
placed by the police on several churches. 

To the Embassy, to know at what time the 
deputation of Cossacks was coming. At noon, 
as they had not come, the Ambassador went to the 
Foreign Office to see Miliukov, and was back in 
half an hour. He had seen the Cossacks in the 
Winter Palace square. Presently from the Em- 



ESTHONIAN DEMONSTRATION 149 

bassy windows we saw them coming down the 1917 
Millionaia on their way to the grave. On reaching 
it they wheeled round, advanced towards the 
Embassy, and halting at the Suvarov Monument 
before the side windows hung a wreath on the neck 
of the statue. Proceeding to the Neva front, 
they first defiled before, and then drew up facing, 
the Ambassador, who, with the Embassy Staff, 
was on the balcony. A deputation then came up. 

Guy Colebrooke told me he had heard that, when Sunday, 
I set fire to my room on Easter Eve a year ago, ^^ 8 * D> 
I had been burning political papers. Doux pays ! 
How the Germanophils hate me ! 

About noon walked down the Nevski to see the 
Esthonian demonstration of 75,000 people with 
their national flag blue, black, and white. Heard 
that the food question was getting very acute, 
chiefly because of the arrival of so many people 
out of work in Petrograd, and of all the Belgian 
glass-workers from the Donetz. 

The Government, excellent though it is, is not Monday, 
strong enough for the situation. God only knows A P nl 9- L - 
how things will turn out. 

We hear the suite of the Emperor has been 
moved from his palace to the Old Palace at Tsarskoe 
Selo, and some people jump to the conclusion that 
the family have been taken away, but I doubt it 
where to ? The newspapers all publish what 
they like. 

I am leaving on Wednesday, April n, for Kis- 
lovodsk in the Caucasus, in hopes of seeing the 
Grand Duchess. Even if I don't see her, she will 



ISO RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 know that I have made the effort. It's a long 
journey three nights in the train ; and I fear 
there is complete anarchy on the railways, the 
soldiers insisting on going first class without paying. 
But I feel, after all her kindness to me, it is the 
least I can do. I shall come back directly. Nobody 
but Knorring * knows I am going ; I shall not tell 
any one, not even the Ambassador. I fear I might 
do her harm ; but I have heard she feels deserted, 
and also that she has had a bad heart attack. 

We think that she is no longer under arrest, as 
Etter has telegraphed to his sister-in-law, " Beau 
temps : nous nous promenons" which makes us 
think qu'elle est reldchee. 

Her automobiles have not been taken, but it is 
very difficult to keep them from the Revolutionaries. 
To-day I heard that Kerenski, the Minister of 
Justice, was trying to get an automobile for him- 
self commandeering, not stealing so I have let 
Knorring know. By supplying his want it might 
save her other motor-cars from being stolen, and 
might also help her later on. Everybody's auto- 
mobiles were taken at the beginning of the Revo- 
lution, and not one has been returned. 

I hear that all the palaces which were inherited 
by the Imperial family have been made national 
property like the Winter Palace, the Tsarskoe 
Selo palaces, Peterhof and Oranienbaum ; but 
palaces built or bought by the Imperial family 
will continue to belong to them. The Apanages 
are sequestrated for agrarian purposes, and a civil 
* Equerry to the Grand Duchess Vladimir. 



ANARCHY AMONG WORKING CLASSES 151 

list is to be made. The proposed amount for 1917 
Grand Dukes and Grand Duchesses is to be 
Rs. 30,0000 per year, and for the Princes, 
Rs. 1 5,000 per year. Princes are the third genera- 
tion from the Emperor. 

The people will not work sometimes I think a 
few months under the Prussian " iron heel " would 
do them good ; the soldiers' attitude is improving 
slightly. The working classes are in a state of 
absolute anarchy. I do not know what will happen 
if the power goes to the Soviets. The work- 
people express violent hatred of the English. 

It is all very perplexing, very sad, and extremely 
worrying. One is anxious without knowing why. 
The English newspapers about the Revolution 
have not arrived ; it will be interesting to read 
them. A month ago to-day was the bad day. 
What a day ! When shall I ever leave this country 
or see you or Paris again ! 

Sergei Obolenski came to see me and yesterday Tuesday 
I had luncheon with them. He is and looks ill; Apn 
but he has passed the medical examination and is 
now waiting for an order to go to the Crimea. 
He is as charming as ever. 

Things go on vaguely, but as long as this Govern- 
ment keeps in it is all we ask. I fear Milyukov 
will leave better perhaps for those that remain, 
though it is always a bother to have to throw 
some one overboard. 

Neither the Emperor nor his family now have a 
penny ; all their money is stopped. There's not a 
5-rouble note in the palace of Tsarskoe Selo, so 



152 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 that they are all completely in the hands of the 
Government. 

The Council of Workmen and Soldiers consists of 
people with false Russian names, and is full of 
German agents. Altogether things are not very 
bright. 

April 20. L. I have been away mysteriously. Without telling 
anybody I rushed off to Kislovodsk in the Caucasus 
to see my Grand Duchess. As you know, she has 
always been more than kind to me, and I wanted 
to show her that my devotion could be practical. 
Nobody from Petrograd had been to see her, and 
she was much touched. 

When I walked into her villa she was at luncheon. 
She was so pleased to see me that all the bothers 
of my journey were forgotten. The soldiers and 
officers who guard her are well-mannered, but 
three weeks before I got there the " Red " Town 
Committee which, like all the provincial ones, is 
most virulent came into her bedroom at 2.30 a.m. 
to read the mandat d'arret ; and afterwards she had 
fainting fits and was unconscious for hours. She 
is better now, and I did not find her looking too ill. 
I had the most awful journey seventy-eight hours, 
and twenty hours late ; but I didn't mind, as I 
only thought of getting there. Four nights in the 
train, and no room to go to on arrival ! We were 
four people in the carriage all the way the corridor 
filled with twenty-five deserters from the Front. 

I arrived in Kislovodsk at 3 a.m. on Easter 
morning, and, having no inn to go to, rushed off to 
church in time to see the peasants' Easter food 



GRAND DUCHESS VLADIMIR 153 

blessed outside the church, with daylight just 1917 
glimmering, and the bells ringing wildly in beautiful 
spring weather. 

When I left Petrograd I did not know if I should 
be allowed to see her. I had intended to roder 
round the villa to let her know I had come, but on 
Easter Day she was allowed to receive, and the 
next day there was a nice officer who let me in. 
Naturally the soldiers are devoted to her. They 
sent her an Easter card, and the officers too. All 
the same, it is difficult for the daughter-in-law of 
Alexander II to imagine herself a prisoner ! Elle 
rfest fas resignee du tout. She told me she thought 
of the " Ballad of Reading Gaol " all the time ! 
She knew absolutely nothing of what has been 
going on in Russia. 

The only thing for the family is to lie low for 
the moment, so that the Provisional Government 
should not be put in a position to be attacked by 
the Workmen's Committee. I feel that in the end 
it won't be so bad for them as most people think, 
but the Government is obliged to give in to this 
bloody Red Committee in order to exist. 

On my advice she has given up the idea of going 
to the Crimea. The lease of her Kislovodsk house 
is up, and she had a house offered her in the Crimea, 
but there are too many of the Imperial family there 
already, and, if she is to move, surely it is better 
to go towards liberty, which can only be through 
Finland. I have since heard that she applied to 
go to a sanatorium in Finland, which has been 
refused, so I expect she will have to move in to 



154 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Andre's villa at Kislovodsk. They will stay on 
there together. 

On Easter Monday she with her son and Etter 
and the officer on guard, Mademoiselle Olive and 
I, went in three sledges for a drive. Very pretty 
country, and the day warm. 

I left the same night, as we thought my staying on 
might attract notice. Anyhow, I am delighted to 
have been able to see her. 

The journey back to Petrograd took only three 
nights ; the train was six hours late. It was 
summer there, but here it is cold and disagreeable. 
I went straight to the hotel, had a bath, and drove 
to the Embassy to tell the Ambassador I had been 
to the Caucasus. He is always delightful and so 
quick, and quite understood my going away 
without letting him know where I was going, as 
I did not want to make him a party to my visit. 

The situation has not changed for the better 
in my absence. It is all very bad and hopeless. 
The spirit of the Fleet is abominable. They have 
nearly all their officers locked up, and when 
Guchkov went there last week they would not 
release them for him, and he had to leave hurriedly. 
In 1905 the actual state of affairs was worse during 
six weeks no electric light, no railways, no post, 
no telegrams. The Emperor, cut off in Peterhof, 
was still all-powerful although the Ministers had 
to sledge across the ice from the Finland side or 
to go in boats to see him, because the Army was on 
the side of order. Now there are nearly two 
million deserters from the Army. Impossible to 



LABOUR MEMBERS AT PETROGRAD 155 

make an offensive, and God alone knows if they will 1917 
keep the defensive. Altogether it is as bad as it 
can be, but in Russia the unexpected always 
happens and Witte in 1905 gave the Reds their 
heads, and when the people got tired of them 
things arranged themselves ; but he had the Army 
with him. 

The English Labour Members are in this hotel, 
and a great success ; the Ambassador likes them ; 
they are horrified at the present condition of things. 
Will Thome and Kerenski dined at the Embassy 
last night. Albert Thomas arrived to-day. The 
Ambassador is much worried. The Provisional 
Government is not strong, and has to give in to 
the Soviet, which really ought not to exist. My 
news yesterday does not show any change in the ( 
position, I regret to say. Whereas every one 
curses and hates the Empress, most pity the 
Emperor. The actual Government is what every 
one wanted, and if it had not been for the Em- 
peror's abdication for his son, there need never have 
been any question of the Soldiers' and Workmen's 
Council ; whereas now it is difficult to separate in 
one's mind and especially for those who suffer from 
it like the Grand Duchess the nominal Government 
and the Soviet which terrorises them. I think it 
will end in bloodshed. 

A man has just been to see me who has a large 
munition factory, and he tells me they are working 
better now on shorter hours than they were before 
on the longer hours. 

The Jews are working openly for Germany. ) 



156 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 They are buying up house property, which is being 
sold much below its value for fear of worse days. 

April 4. D. To Tsarskoe Selo to-day to see Grand Duke Paul 
and get news of his nephew Boris, who before I left 
was under arrest in his English cottage in the park 
there. It is impossible to see or communicate with 
him. He had excellent news of his son Dmitri in 
Persia. Kerenski had been to see the Grand Duke 
and told him no member of the Imperial family 
would be allowed to leave Russia till the end of the 
war. 

Sunday, A deputation of school-teachers came to the 

Apnl 22. D. m ] 3asS y anc [ as ked for His Excellency, who went 
on to the balcony. Pares, who happened to be 
there, translated a few words from him into 
Russian. 

The Neva has at last begun to thaw ; there is an 
open stream twenty yards wide along this bank 
the rest remains frozen. 

April 28. L. It is impossible as yet to realise the upheaval of 
everything, and the utter sweeping away of an 
Empire in forty-eight hours. Yet this has hap- 
pened here, and with hardly any bloodshed about 
200 killed. 

Much as I deplored the grave errors of the 
Empress, my sympathy is always with monarchy 
except for France ; there the people are logical 
the only logical nation in the world. But for 
Russia it will be " out of the frying-pan " to go 
from an autocracy to a republic. The two extreme 
parties would equally rob, lie, and procrastinate. 
I had had fever for five days with a bad 



LENIN THE AGENT OF GERMANY 157 

cough, and still keep my room. I think it was 1917 
the seven nights in the train and the differences 
of climate. 

Things go from worse to worst : God alone 
knows what will happen. 

All the aerodromes are being moved to the Black 
Sea to Kherson. Their removal from the environs 
of Petrograd is partly due to the fear of a possible 
attack by the German Fleet, but principally be- 
cause the men won't work here all the aeroplane 
soldiers are mobilised artisans. 

The French Ambassador is going on leave not to 
return, I am sorry to hear. Albert Thomas stays 
on in the interim. We don't know yet who will 
eventually be nominated. 

I was just between my abonnements of the 
New Tork Herald and the Times, so have been 
without English newspapers describing the Revo- 
lution, except one of March 17, which was 
ridiculously inaccurate. 

In front of the Embassy I fell out of a tram JAprilso. L. 
pushed by a citizen soldier on my face and wrist, I 
so please excuse bad writing. Two of the militia, 
who since the Revolution are taking the place of 
the police, helped me to the Embassy, where Lady 
Georgina tied up my wrist. 

The German agents are working against England. 
The Ismailovski Regiment has gone over to Lenin, 
the German agent here. The sailors have taken 
away from their officers the right to wear epaulettes. 

I leave Wednesday for the Crimea to stay with 
the Obolenskis at Yalta. I am delighted to leave 



158 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 this disorderly town, but shall hate missing the 
street fighting, if there is any. 

I believe the King of Sweden offered a home to 
some members of the Imperial family, which was 
really kind. Empress Marie is furious at our 
Embassy's not sending her letters to Marlborough 
House. She cannot understand the situation. 
Poor thing ! How can one expect her to ? 

The palace of the Grand Duchess Vladimir at 
Tsarskoe Selo has been perquisitionne. This is what 
really happened. The housekeeper had by mistake 
left the electric light on all night. The military 
police came in. Next day the authorities thought 
it advisable to make an inventory of the whole 
palace. In her safe was found a book which the 
Red newspapers allege is a German cipher the 
fools ! They have since had to admit it was the 
key to the working of the safe, which had only 
lately been put in and which, like everything else 
in Petrograd, was " made in Germany." 

To-day I have seen an officer who went to Stavka 
with Guchkov, and yesterday the Foreign Office 
representative who works there. Both told me 
that the whole Stavka mourn the departure of 
General Hanbury- Williams. 

I know the new Minister of War. I hope to 
get my business through when things are settled. 
I have been very busy. The Minister of Finance, 
Terestchenko, is our old friend from the south of 
France, so I hope for the best. 

Saturday, It was daylight at 3.30 a.m. when my train 
ay5 ' ' reached Semferopol in the Crimea, the station for 



AT YALTA 159 

Yalta. No automobile to be got before half-past 1917 
six ! Walked about the town, watched the rooks 
building, and fed them with bread. I left at 7 
to drive fifty-five miles to Yalta. Over the I 
mountains and down the other side, through woods 
of wild pear, cherry, and crab-apple in blossom, 
with the blue sea at my feet. At Alushta, on the 
sea-shore, had breakfast. The lilac-trees in flower 
everywhere. Arrived at the Villa Mordvina 10.30 
a.m. and received by Princess Obolenski. Sergei 
was down in the town. 

YALTA. Here I am, settled, but the weather Saturday, 
most indifferent, and everything a fortnight late May 5> L " 
because of this awful winter. The place is not 
nearly so pretty as Cannes, or Cap Martin, or 
Sicily, but it has its charm. It reminds me of the 
Territet end of Lake Geneva not a bit of the 
French Riviera. 

We lead the simple life up at 7 and to bed 
at 9. Sergei Obolenski is already better for the 
change and rest. The villa very large, clean, 
and comfortable. The Empress Marie is staying 
at her daughter's* villa eighty-three people in all. 
One does not hear of nor see them. 

Felix Yusupov is expected back from Petrograd 
any day. I have full details now of the event, 
but not yet from himself. It was he who killed 
the " Unmentionable." Dmitri Pavlovich's declara- 
tion on oath was quite true.f 

* Grand Duchess Xenia, wife of Grand Duke Alexander 
Michailovich and mother of Princess Felix Yusupov. 
t See Dec. 31, 1916 (pp. 76-79). 



160 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 YALTA. It is such a relief to be in the sun- 

shine and flowers after Petrograd. I am leading 
a quiet life, which has done me a lot of good, 
and think I shall stay here a month. I am quite 
happy my hostess is charming, and I have a few 
friends in the town. 

An entire absence of hypocrisy or pretence 
makes Russians so easy to live with. I don't 
think Latins or Anglo-Saxons can ever understand 
Slavs. Les Slavs se comprennent. 

To-day is my Grand Duchess's birthday, and 
mine to-morrow. Last year I spent both with 
her. I would like to go and see her again, but 
from here it is too difficult, and the cross-country 
railway journey too complicated, and besides 
there is always the fear of doing her harm by 
the idea of any communication between different 
members of the family. I have given her proof 
of my devotion ; now there would only be my 
strong desire to see her in her distress. 

Felix Yusupov, back from Petrograd, comes 
here this afternoon. 

This letter is going to Petrograd with Madame 
Terestchenko, mother of the Foreign Minister. 
One never knows now whether letters arrive 
that's " Liberty " ! 

A few nights ago, a destroyer seized by sailors 
at Sebastopol arrived here about midnight. After 
landing they commandeered as many automobiles 
as they could lay hands on and motored to 
Ai Todor, where the Empress Marie is staying with 
her daughter, and arrived there between 2 and 3 



VISIT TO DOWAGER EMPRESS 161 

in the morning. The front door being unlocked, 1917 
they went straight to the upper floor, found her 
bedroom, went in and ordered her out of bed. 
They would not let 'her maid come to her. She 
stood up behind a screen in her night attire until 
the " perquisition " was completed. A woman 
whom they brought with them ripped up the 
mattresses, and the whole room was searched 
from ceiling to floor. They split open her icons 
to see if anything were hidden, and took them 
away, and also confiscated her Testament and 
her prescription book, and all the letters they 
could find, many being from the late King and 
Queen of Denmark. This occupied nearly three 
hours. Several articles of no great value were 
missing afterwards. Then they went into her 
daughter's room, who was asleep with her husband. 
They made him get out of bed and leave the 
room, and put a sailor with a gun and fixed 
bayonet on either side of her bed, where she had 
to stay. 

Afterwards these devils went on to the Grand 
Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich. He was already 
dressed when they arrived, received them at 
the front door, and said the villa was entirely 
at their disposal to search. He and his family 
went into the garden. Guards were placed at the 
doors and entrances of both villas. 

YALTA. Was sitting at the Cafe Florens, built Thursday, 
out over the sea where everybody meets in the 
morning. Across the road is the confiserie, also 
kept by Florens, a Frenchman with a charming 

L 



162 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 wife and two daughters. Sergei Dolgoruki came in 
with his sister, Countess Fersen and her two 
children, and another lady to whom he introduced 
me his wife beautiful and full of charm. They 
invited me to their villa at Mishor next week. 

Friday, YALTA. All round and everywhere there is 

only anxiety. Countess Betsy Schuvalov has 
just arrived from Kislovodsk, where she saw the 
Grand Duchess Vladimir most days, and has 
brought me a piteous letter from her in which 
she complains most bitterly of her lot. She 
has not been out of her house for more than 
two months. As she has moved into a smaller 
house, she lives entirely in one bed-sitting room. 
What can I do r Surely the best thing is to do 
nothing ; but how can she be expected to take 
this view, never in her life having been denied 
anything ? 

She wants me to go from here to the Caucasus, 
but in her interest I think it will be best that 
I should go first to Petrograd, where at least I 
shall be able to ascertain the exact position of the 
family during my absence. At this distance one 
hears nothing but lies, and on pent se rendre 
compte de rien. 

Quel type la Comtesse Betsy! She is the only 
energetic Russian I have ever met, and would 
make a splendid Dictator, not caring a damn for 
any one ! To-day she goes to see the Empress 
Marie, although she is under arrest. 

Wednesday, YALTA. To visit Princess Bariatinski, Countess 
' Betsy's sister, for many years head of the Red Cross 



REMINISCENCES OF 1914 163 

in Yalta, who, regardless of Bolshevik! opposition, 1917 
, has stuck courageously to her post. She took me 
round the various Red Cross hospitals in Yalta. 
I met a Russian lady who had been sent officially 
to Germany by the Russian Red Cross of which 
the Empress Marie is the head accompanied 
by a Danish officer. One day, while waiting 
for the German officials to show her over the 
camps, she happened to stray into a shed used 
as a camp bakery. There, to her horror, she 
saw, tied before the ovens, some Russian soldiers 
who, for some misdemeanours, were being par- 
roasted. 

I recounted to her what I saw in Paris, on the 
third Sunday in September 1914, after the Battle 
of the Marne. The Germans had retreated, leaving 
their wounded on the field. General Gallieni, with 
characteristic kindness, had them all brought to 
Paris. At that time I was going every day to the 
Val de Grace Hospital to see the English wounded, 
who were being brought in with the French, and to 
visit an Irish soldier who was dying. The sister 
who was nursing him said, " I have got some- 
thing to show you ! " and took me out of the ward 
to a little room on the staircase. Under a napkin 
were three watches and the right hand of a child, of 
four, taken out of the coat pocket of a German 
soldier.* 

Felix Yusupov and his wife to tea in the loggia. 
Afterwards, in the garden, he told me the whole 
story of the murder of Rasputin. "j* 

* This wretch was promptly shot. f See p. 83. 



164 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 The news of the Vimy Ridge mine is marvellous, 

Thursday, , J _, ^ 

June 14. D. even as given in a short telegram. The Russian 

newspapers now hate to admit that we English do 
anything. 

Saturday, YALTA. Princess Serge Dolgoruki died quite 
Junei6. L. suc idenly at the age of thirty-six, leaving six 
children by a former husband the eldest only 
| thirteen and one little Dolgoruka. She has been 
unconscious for two days from a mistaken dose of 
veronal. She is to be buried on Wednesday. 
She was a charming lady, loved by everybody, 
and was an intimate friend of the Grand Duchess 
Xenia. Her death has greatly upset us all. 

Countess Betsy Schuvalov came to fetch me to 
go to the funeral service at the little church of 
Korrise, near their house, Mishor, which lies in the 
midst of oak and laburnum woods near the sea 
below the village. We picked up Princess Urussov 
and Princess Volkonski, and arrived at Korrise 
at 10. The requiem began at once. In South 
Russia the coffin is only closed in the cemetery. 
The body lay half covered with a cloth-of-silver 
pall, and embedded in pink roses. I have never 
seen anything more beautiful or more moving. 
The six children were there ; they all kissed their 
dead mother on entering the church. During the 
service a constant stream of village people was 
placing flowers near the body. At the end every 
one present kissed the dead Princess. It was the 
first Russian funeral I had been to. 

The Empress Marie and the Grand Duchess 
Xenia assisted at the service in a side chapel, 



FUNERAL OF PRINCESS DOLGORUKI 165 

which they entered by another door, and when 1917 
the coffin, borne by friends, was carried out and the 
procession started for the cemetery, the Empress, 
her daughter, and her sons also followed on foot. 
The roads were strewn with pink roses and green 
boughs. 

I thought the Empress, whom I had not seen 
for more than a year, was looking well better 
than I expected she possibly could, though a little 
thinner. She walked with a firm step over a very 
muddy, slippery road and down a steep hill. 
The Grand Duchess appeared ill, tired, and very 
sad. Her daughter, Princess Felix Yusupov, told 
me she was in indifferent health and much upset 
by recent events. 

All Yalta was present. The cemetery a mile 
away is on a wooded knoll in the middle of a 
vineyard. We had hardly arrived when a terrible 
thunder-shower began, and we were all drenched 
to the skin. The motors and carriages had been 
left in the high road, and we had to descend a steep 
footpath through the vineyard to the cemetery. 
A hired carriage came to fetch the Empress Marie, 
her daughter, and two little grandsons, to join 
her automobile, which had gone with her own 
Cossack on the lower road, at the bottom of the 
vineyard. It was too wet to finish the service, 
and the priest left to come back later. The 
coffin, now covered with its lid, being placed under 
a tree, all the friends left and only the family 
remained. 

The weather has been abominable. The cherries, 



166 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 magnolias, and white jasmine are wonderful. The 
sides of the hills, sloping to the sea, are planted 
with tobacco. The cherry-market is a sight to 
see. The cherries white, pink, red, and black- 
are brought in, in every shape and size of basket, 
on every sort of animal, and in every kind of 
vehicle. The peasants here are Mohammedan 
kind and courteous people, and every village 
has its mosque. 

One day I offered some cherries to a Tartar 
boy, a child of seven who lives by the gate. As 
he refused them, I threw them away. Next 
time I passed he ran up and kissed my hand, and 
said he had not meant to be rude ! 

Wednesday, YALTA. Terrific thunder-storm all night. Very 

l27 ' ' hot morning. Grand Duke Alexander's two sons 

came to wish me good-bye ; also Countess Betsy 

Schuvalov and Princess Bariatinski. Left at 4 

p.m. for Semferopol. 

The woods are now carpeted with wild flowers 
of every conceivable colour blue predominating 
far more beautiful than the Engadine flora ! 
All along the highway cushat doves in pairs, 
pecking gravel, hardly took the trouble to get 
out of our way. 

Found Nikky Orlov at the station ; went to 
the hotel and dined with him. We left by the 
3.22 a.m. train. 

Thursday, ALEXANDROVSK. 90 Fahrenheit. Nikky 

16 28 ' Dt changed here for Kiev. Made the acquaintance 

of Alexinski, member of the Second Duma, on 

his way back from Sevastopol, where he had been 



TRAVELLING UNDER GUARD 167 

sent by Kerenski to inquire into and report on 19(7 
the sailors' mutiny and their raid on the Imperial 
family at Yalta, which had not been authorised 
by the Government, the " perquisition " being 
made under forged signatures. It is difficult to 
get at the truth. He is agreeable and interesting, 
and talks good French. 

From the train, in brilliant sunshine, saw a hawk 
surrounded and pursued by a flock of golden 
orioles, with their slow, undulating flight ; I 
counted forty-eight, but the hawk got away ! 

CHARKOV. At important stations the door of Friday, 
each corridor carriage is guarded by a sentry with ^ u 
fixed bayonet to stop deserters or prevent the 
unauthorised entry of soldiers. The man on guard 
at my carriage was leaning against the train, 
smoking, with his rifle held anyhow. I said in 
English, with an air of authority, " You know 
you are on duty ; why the hell don't you take 
the cigarette out of your mouth and hold yourself 
straight ? " The inflexion of my voice and the 
atavism of obedience were enough : he instantly 
threw away his cigarette and stood to attention ! 

Arrived Petrograd at 11.30 a.m. No porters Saturday, 
and no cabs ; commandeered private two-horse ^ une 3 * 
carriage, which took me to the hotel for 5 roubles 
five times ordinary price ! My case of Crimean 
wine, too heavy for luggage van, travelled under 
conductor's bed. Streets filthy. 

At 9.20 a procession began to pass down the Sunday, 
Nevski. The sailors' band headed it ; everything ^ y Im 
was quiet ; but there was panic in our street. 



168 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 The supporters of the Government stayed away. 
At 12.45 I walked to Donon's and found it shut, 
so came back and had luncheon in my room. 
At 4.30 walked to the Embassy and had tea with 
Lady Georgina, Princess Soltykov, and Madame 
Tatistchev, with whom I walked back to the Foreign 
Office. Then to the hotel, dined, and took a long 
walk, eventually arriving at the Foreign Office, 
rinding only the Tatistchevs and Soldatenkov. 
Monday, Hearing Grand Duke Boris is no longer under 

J y2. . arrest? decided to go to Tsarskoe Selo. Drove 
straight to his house and found him at luncheon. 
First time I had seen him since the Revolution. 
Has left the Army. Afterwards we walked to the 
Grand Duke Paul's house and sat in the garden. 
Tuesday, At 3 this morning the Cossacks took away the 

July 3. D. Anarchist prisoners from the Preobrajenski Bar- 
racks. I feel a state of general tension. Walked 
with the Ambassador as far as the Winter Palace 
and back, to tell him about the situation in the 
Crimea. 

Wednesday, A procession of soldiers went up the Nevski 
July 4 . D. at noon< j n t h e afternoon to visit the Felix 
Yusupovs. He showed me exactly where Rasputin 
was killed, the blood-stained Polar bear skin, and 
how it happened. We then walked to the Nevski, 
where Felix left me. 

Sunday, Passing the church of the Preobraienski Regi- 

JulyS. D. i . . i . 

ment, where evening service was being sung by 

the soldiers and one priest, went in to see if the 

* One of the numerous regiments of which every Emperor 
is Colonel-in-Chief. 



INVENTORIES OF POSSESSIONS 169 

sword of Alexander II was still in its glass case ; 1917 
only the Emperor's seat under the canopy has gone 
and the eagle at the back is covered with red 
cloth. 

Here I am back in Petrograd. Telegrams take Sunday, 
nine days in Russia and twenty-seven hours to ' uy ' 
London, and the post one cannot depend on. 
It is all very unpleasant here, and I shall be 
delighted to get away ; but first I should like to 
go and say good-bye to our Grand Duchess. 
The journey don't frighten me ; I have done so 
many. I hear she is quiet and well. She has 
but to lie low and unless the anarchists get the 
upper hand has nothing to fear. 

The Grand Duke Boris is quite free. I con- 
stantly see him. There is always good news 
of Dmitri Pavlovich from Teheran, from the 
summer quarters of the Legations. He is free 
to go where he likes. 

Albert Thomas was the most enormous success. 
Elihu Root leaves on Tuesday much liked, but 
I doubt if his visit is of any real use, as they f 
will not listen to anything he proposes. They 
want nothing but peace at any price. 

Alexander Polovtsov is making an inventory \ 
of everything in the palace of Gatchina. The ^ 
private will of the Emperor Alexander III was 
found in the drawer of his writing-table and 
sent to the archives. Polovstov is working for 
the Government, who are cataloguing the contents 
of all the Imperial Palaces. Last night it was i 
said his brother Peter had given up the Petrograd 



1917 



no support 



Thursday, 



170 RUSSIAN DIARY 

command a thankless job with 
behind it. 

A curious side of the Russian character, in all 
classes, is the absence of initiative. I put it 
down as the natural result of autocracy. In this 
country the least attempt at initiative would 
always have been suppressed ; hence it does 
not exist. In every Russian there is the latent 
dread of the autocrat. 

Dined at Tsarskoe Selo with the Grand Duke 
Paul. Afterwards motored with the Grand Duke 
Boris to Pavlovsk, and then back to Petrograd. 
A summer night of wonderful colours the red 
rose of sunset fading into the flush of dawn 
from crimson into palest pink, and then back to 
rose-colour. 

Woke up at II a.m. No one answered my 
bell. Found hotel servants 
cooks. Dressed, made my 

my bath, swept my room. I did the same for 
a rheumatic old lady in my corridor who was 
much upset by the strike. Had invited Bibikov 
and Putiatin to luncheon. With them to kitchen 
and procured what we wanted to eat, and carried 
it up to my room. Oddly enough, the coffee-pot 
I was carrying dripped all the way to the second 
floor. It took two days' hard labour to clean the 
marble staircase without carpet in the summer 
after the servants came off strike. Luncheon over, 
placed all the plates, dishes, etc., on the floor 
outside the door. Dinner at Felix Yusupov's 
in the room where Rasputin was killed ; sat next 



Friday, 
July 13 



D. 



one 

on strike, except 
own bed, cleaned 



TURMOIL IN POPULAR QUARTER 171 

to Lady Muriel Paget. Took an izvoschik home ; 1917 
paid him a rouble for a 4O-kopek fare. He called 
me a Jew ! 

There is quite a different feeling in Petrograd July 13. L. 
since the advance in Galicia. Let's hope they 
won't run into a trap or lose what they have got. 
Arthur Henderson leaves to-day. What do you 
think of " Sonia " ? I suppose it will become a 
classic of the years just before the war. 

The Ambassador thanked me for news I had Monday, 
sent him in the morning " just what he wanted 
to know." 

Dined with Edward Cunard and Guy Colebrooke, 
both of the Embassy, in the Olives' house, where 
I had been on March 10. It is at the far end of 
the town, only a hundred yards from the Tauride 
Palace, where the Duma meets. I left at 9.15 p.m. 
on foot with Cunard. The streets were quite 
normal. He accompanied me down the Sergeivskia 
a little way. When I got to the Liteiny the 
main artery from the popular quarter across the 
Neva I found it all in effervescence. No trams 
always a bad sign. Nobody seemed to know if 
anything had happened or was going to happen 
many people spoke to me. Everybody was asking 
everybody else what was on. 

I walked down the Mochovaia and a motor-car 
full of students and Grenadier soldiers passed me 
and stopped at No. 28, where I saw several rifles 
being brought out, put into the automobile, which 
turned round and left at full speed. At the corner 
of the Fontanka Bridge and the Cinistelli Circus, 



172 RUSSIAN DIARY 

the same automobile came up, stopped a motor-car 
with a lady and gentleman, pulled them out, not 
too roughly ; half of the armed men got into it, 
and the two cars started off again at full speed. 

I continued on foot to the Hotel de 1' Europe 
and telephoned what I had seen to Lady Georgina. 
She told me that motor-lorries full of armed men 
had been coming over the Troitza Bridge in front 
of the Embassy for the last hour. I then walked 
down the Nevski to go to the Yusupovs' Palace. 
It was the Princess's birthday. The Nevski was 
emptying fast, though there were still some strollers 
and some sightseers. Armoured cars and motor- 
lorries with armed men were tearing up and down. 
Three tiny children were dancing round together, 
excitedly singing out, " Revoluzion, Revoluzion ! " 
I left the Nevski to go down the Moika, which was 
quite calm. A good many diners were coming out 
of the restaurants. 

The Marienski Palace Place, the seat of the 
Provisional Government, was quite empty ; on 
the steps of the palace nine soldiers were talking. 
Continuing down the Moika to the Yusupov Palace, 
found my hosts packing off the Grand Duchess 
Marie Pavlovna II, Mita Benckendorff, and Prince 
Palei, for the station to take the train to Tsarskoe 
Selo. They had come up to dine and spend the 
evening, but it was thought better they should 
leave at once. Till I came the only news they had 
had was by telephone ; everything was quite 
quiet in this quarter. 

Many guests had come after dinner, like me, to 



TERROR OF THE COSSACKS 173 

hear Sacha Markarov, the great guitarist, play. 1917 
A young lady thought fit to sit on the window-sill 
of the ground-floor drawing-room, and in a few 
minutes a crowd had gathered outside. It was 
thought better to close all the iron shutters on the 
ground floor. 

In the meantime a regiment, armed, with all 
its officers, marched down the Moika on the 
opposite side, halted, and stood along the balustrade 
of the canal. I afterwards heard that, near the 
Nevski end of the Moika, while this regiment 
was marching along, the cry of " Cossacks " was 
raised, and they all fled into the nearest houses 
and courtyards. Many passers-by were knocked 
down and trampled upon, and my informant was 
bruised a good deal as the soldiers rushed through 
the narrow opening of a big door into the court- 
yard. Such is the inherent terror both soldiers 
and the people have of the Cossacks ! 

We all left the drawing-room on the ground 
floor and went to the apartment on the top floor 
which are their sleeping-rooms until those on 
the ground floor are finished. From these win- 
dows we could see the regiment, which eventually 
marched away. 

I went downstairs to the dining-room in the 
basement, where Lady Muriel Paget had in the 
meantime arrived and, with the other guests, 
had come down to the dining-room in the base- 
ment. I determined to go back to the street. 
Lady Muriel asked me whether I would see her 
home ; I said I would, provided she did every- 



174 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 thing I told her. Avoiding all open spaces and 
broad streets, as I had learnt to do in the First 
Revolution, and keeping close to the houses, 
we made for the Fontanka Canal. Presently 
we found an izvoschik, who agreed for ten roubles 
to go wherever we wanted. 

As we arrived at the Sadovia we ran up against 
a demonstration of workpeople and soldiers, 
which just prevented our crossing. They were all 
very excited and singing the " Marseillaise." 
Lady Muriel preferred to get out of the izvoschik 
and stand near the houses, so that in case of 
a rush she might be able to go inside. Some 
izvoschiki came up, and one of the drivers began 
to complain loudly of being held up by the pro- 
cession. He was instantly surrounded by the 
mob and pulled off his box. A few minutes after 
a panic seized the procession whether from fear 
. of the Cossacks or of machine-guns I don't know ; 
I heard no firing. All the izvoschiki skedaddled. 
I managed to tumble out of mine and get on 
the sidewalk, and for the moment I lost Lady 
Muriel. 

An old woman was hobbling along on two sticks, 
which were knocked out of her hands in the 
rush, and she fell on her knees. I picked her 
up, gave her her sticks, and propped her against 
the wall. I then called out to Lady Muriel, 
and fortunately she heard me. I told her to 
lie down near the wall, as there was no courtyard 
near to get into ; but on second thoughts I hurried 
her down the street and we found one. 



FIGHTING IN THE NEVSKI PROSPEKT 175 

In the meantime our izvoschik had disappeared, 1917 
and as soon as the demonstration had thinned 
down we managed to cross the street and walked 
on, eventually reaching the Anglo-Russian Hos- 
pital at 1.15 a.m. A lot of wounded from the 
fighting in the Nevski had been brought in, and 
we went straight up to the wards to see them. 
The doctors and sisters were much concerned 
at the non-appearance of Lady Muriel, as on 
their telephoning to the Yusupov Palace they 
were" told she had left there more than an hour 
before. 

The fighting in the Nevski was between Bol- 
shevik soldiers and the Cossacks, who had been 
drawn up across the street at the corner of 
Vladimir Prospekt. The soldiers lay flat in the 
middle of the roadway and fired on the Cossacks. 
No sooner did the Cossacks reply than the cowards 
crept to the side and bolted into the nearest 
houses. Thank God, some of the brutes were 
killed. 

After I had had some tea I left the hospital 
and walked down the Nevski to the Hotel de 
1'Europe. I saw only one shop window broken 
a cigar-shop. I met many stretchers with 
wounded people on them, and there was a great 
crowd on the Sadovia the Nevski was empty. 
I got back to the hotel at 2.15 a.m. and went 
to bed. 

Whilst walking about in the morning heard Tuesday, 
fierce shooting, but did not get under fire. During J uly I7> 
luncheon in the hotel a battle took place in the 



176 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Sadovia close by ; the bullets rattled down on 
the roof opposite. Hand-grenades were being 
used by the Bolsheviki all over Petrograd. To 
the Embassy and talked with the Ambassador 
privately. Dined at night off tea and jam, as 
all the hotel cooks had left. 

Wednesday, Violent rain all night, which swept the Bol- 
July 18. D. T ., . rr ! XT , , 

sheviki off the streets. No trams and only an 

occasional izvoschik. My old music-seller opposite 
opened his shop at 10.30 for a few minutes only. 
All shops closed. Dined at the Polovtsovs, and 
heard that the Bolsheviki were to be " polished 
off " to-night. This would have been done last 
night but for the violent rain. Went to the 
Embassy to warn the Ambassador that all the 
bridges are to be opened, in order to cut off 
the Bolsheviki from their strongholds, which are 
the workmen's quarters on the other side of the 
river. Returned to the Polovtsovs, where we 
played bridge till 3 a.m., waiting for news which 
never came. 

Thursday, Early in the morning Lady Georgina telephoned 
' me they had been warned at 5.30 that the Peter- 
Paul Fortress might bombard the town at any 
moment. Dressed quickly and started off at 
once to the Embassy. As I crossed the Champ 
de Mars a number of soldiers at the Pavlovsk 
Barracks, sitting in the windows with rifles, 
fired from time to time across the Champ de Mars 
over my head into the Summer Garden. I was 
not going to turn back for them. I pulled myself 
together and walked across the Champ de Mars 



PETER-PAUL FORTRESS CAPITULATES 177 

and entered the Embassy by the adjoining court- 1917 

yard of Princess Soltykov's house. Went straight 

up to the first floor, found the Ambassador on 

the balcony surrounded by his secretaries instead 

of sitting in the cellar, as they had been told 

to do eagerly watching the troops advancing 

on their stomachs across the Troitzka Bridge. 

Terestchenko, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 

had placed rooms in the Foreign Office at the 

disposal of the Ambassador and his family, but 

they refused to leave. 

About half-past eleven a message came to say 
that the house of the dancer, Kchessinskaia, which 
had been looted and taken over by the Bolsheviki 
at the beginning of the Revolution, had been 
captured by the Government troops, and at 
ten minutes past one an officer came to say 
that the Peter-Paul Fortress, which was being 
held by the Soldiers and Workmen against 
the Government forces, had capitulated. For 
the first time since the Revolution the midday 
gun was not fired from the fortress as usual 
to-day. In the evening I saw Cossacks on 
white horses escorting Kerenski back from the 
station to the Winter Palace on his return from 
Stavka. 

Severe fighting round the Nicolai railway station. Friday, 
Changes in the Cabinet. At midnight some one J ul y 20 - D - 
telephoned to say a battle was going on by the 
Palace Bridge, opposite the Winter Palace. Opened 
my windows but could hear nothing ; too tired 
to dress again. 

M 



178 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 In last night's battle the Bolsheviki, who had 

collected at the end of the Palace Bridge, were 
surrounded by Cossacks and cut into small pieces. 
I had a little piece of Bolshevik brought me 
later ! The bad news from the Front, which 
I have known since Thursday, is now published. 

Monday, To the Polovtsovs after dinner. The General 

came in and told us Lenin had not yet been 
found. I suggested to search the Vladimir Palace, 
which I know has been a nest of revolutionaries 
for the last three months. 

July 25. L. We have had five days' hell. Tuesday was 
worse than any day in the Revolution, but it 
is not over yet. We must wade through a sea 
of blood before it can be ended. Perhaps nothing 
will happen to me why should it ? But if I 
" go away " don't regret me ; I am so tired 
I want to sleep ! 

The Cossacks are to be buried on July 28. 
The news from the Front is too terrible to think 
of two Army Corps surrendered, and all the 
towns lost which were so lately won. Thank 
God, the Huns will find nothing to eat. I know 
what that is, as we are starving here. Tarnopol 
is a great disaster, and really last night, after 
four days' anarchy, when that news came, we 
were all disheartened. You have no idea how 
tired it makes one ; I sleep eight hours, only to 
wake up much more tired. There is nothing 
to eat, either ; I am always hungry. 

For the moment all is quiet here, but there 
may yet be a pitched battle between those who 



IMPERIAL FAMILY IN CAPTIVITY 179 

want to maintain order and carry on the war, 1917 
and those who don't want to do either. 

I have been back three weeks from the Crimea, July 27. L. 
and yesterday I went to Tsarskoe Selo to see the 
Grand Duke Paul. There is but little news of 
the Emperor and his children. It is only when 
by chance somebody knows one of the officers 
who have been on guard that any direct news 
is got ; but this is known they are all in ex- 
cellent health and at work in their kitchen-garden, 
except the Empress, who does not go out. There 
is a triple cordon of guards, and they are not 
allowed to pass the first line, which rather restricts 
their exercise ; but, after all, it is for their 
safety ; and if you had been through what we 
have been through this last week, you would 
be glad to have guards to protect you. 

The Commandant of the Palace is an upright 
officer and a gentleman, and he does all in his 
power to meet their wishes. 

Last night Prince Putiatin came to see me. 
He was twenty-three years in the Imperial house- 
hold and thirty-two days in the fortress. Last 
week he lost his father-in-law, Admiral Paltov, 
one of the oldest admirals in the Imperial Navy. 
At the funeral service, Mademoiselle Hendrikov, 
the Empress's maid of honour, came with a 
message of condolence from her, which shows 
that they know all that passes, and are allowed 
to communicate with friends on matters of personal 
interest. The Prince confirmed the excellent 
character of the Commandant of the Palace, 



i8o RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 I have not written to you since my return, 

because till yesterday I had nothing but vague 
reports to give you, although I have been several 
times to Tsarskoe Selo. I received a letter from 
Kislovodsk from the Grand Duchess Vladimir. 
She is quite free in that town and is no longer 
molested, but I fear her health has suffered from 
her three months' arrest ; she complains of her 
heart. Before I leave Russia I hope to be able 
to go and see her again. 

We have passed through a terrible week. 
It began at 9.30 on Monday evening, July 16, 
and the last street battle was on Saturday, 
July 21, at midnight. I think Tuesday was worse 
than any day in the First Revolution ; then 
the people were out for an ideal, this week it 
is pure anarchy, combined with nothing to eat. 
Thursday morning was a critical moment for 
the Embassy. They were all warned at 5.30 
to be ready to leave. At n, the house of the 
dancer opposite, occupied by the anarchists, capi- 
tulated ; and at a quarter to one, the Fortress. 
The weather was very hot and stuffy ; I think 
revolutions are better in the winter. 

But all of this is nothing compared with the 
news from the Front, where the soldiers are 
laying down their arms wholesale. History tells 
us the Russians have never won a real war 
only wars for enlarging their frontiers. Formerly 
the Russian soldier gave his life for the Tsar, 
and went into the trenches singing his hymn 
that he would die for the Tsar. Now he is for- 



KERENSKI IN WINTER PALACE 181 

bidden to sing that hymn. He has no " Little 1917 
Father " to die for, and asks himself, " What 
am I fighting for ? " 

Siberians who, by the way, have proved them- 
selves first-rate soldiers live much farther from 
Warsaw than Warsaw is from Bordeaux, and 
they would much sooner be tilling their land 
than fighting Germans who live thousands of 
versts away. All this has been preached to 
them on the Front by paid agents of Germany. 

There are twenty-four million men under arms 
in Russia, and one has only to look at the map 
to see where the larger proportion must come 
from. If Moscow had been attacked, as in 
1812, it would have been a different thing. The 
Ambassador is in despair, though but for him 
I do not believe any offensive would have been 
made since the Revolution ; and since Albert 
Thomas left he has had to work single-handed. 
The new French Ambassador will not for some little 
time have much influence. It is heart-rending. 

I go to-morrow to Kislovodsk to see the Grand July 27. L. 
Duchess Vladimir and spend her fete with her. 
I shall be away nine days six in the train and 
three there. On Monday I go to Tsarskoe Selo 
to get any messages and news from Grand Duke 
Boris for his mother. 

The war news was very bad last night. Kerenski 
who has Jewish blood is living in the Winter 
Palace. There is a question of sending the Em- 
peror and his family to Siberia to a town, Tobolsk, 
400 versts from a railway. 



1 82 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 I believe the Emperor and his family have 

J U Y 2 9. keen sent to Sib er i a . I heard this last night. 
I wonder what effect it will have on the people. 
I think Kerenski will make himself dictator. 

Left Nicolai station, Petrograd, 9.30 for Kis- 
lovdsk in the Caucasus. General Offley Shaw 
and Lieutenant Grundy, Persian Rifles, travelled 
in the next compartment to me on their way 
to Tiflis and Persia respectively. 

Monday, ROSTOV-ON-DON. The bridge across the Don, 

juyao. . swe p t away by the great floods in the month 
of May, has now been repaired. All day passing 
through endless acres of undulating ground planted 
with sunflowers. Seen from the north, the effect 
was a pale yellow-greeny ocean, which, as I looked 
back, changed to lakes of golden sunshine as 
they faced the sun. 

Tuesday, KISLOVODSK. Arrived 9 p.m. All the hotels 

July 31. D. jkjk Left m y luggage at the station and drove 
to the Grand Duchess Vladimir's villa. Walked 
unexpectedly into the dining-room, where I found 
her still at table after dinner with the Grand Duke 
Andre, Princess Mestcherski, and her equerries. 
My unannounced arrival evidently pleased her ; 
she made me very welcome, ordered dinner for 
me, and asked me to stay in the villa. All 
were happy to hear news from the north, and 
we remained round the table talking till mid- 
night. 

Thursday, KISLOVODSK. The Grand Duchess received me 

Aug. 2. D. - n j^ ca fo net & e travail, and we counted the 

money which I had brought her in my boots 



AT KISLOVODSK 183 

from Petrograd ! It was in revolutionary thousand- 1917 
rouble notes, which she had never seen before. 

Afterwards walked with her to the hill leading 
to the town to meet her son. On our way back 
an unknown lady curtsied to the Grand Duchess. 
Ever since her release she has received marks 
of sympathy and courtesy from all classes. She 
took me for a drive through the Cossack villages 
where we had been on Easter Monday. After tea 
I walked up the valley alongside the river of 
Kislovodsk, which reminded me of the Lichtenthal 
Allee, Baden-Baden. It is tidy and well kept. 

A pair of golden orioles sang at 7 a.m. Ordered Friday, 
a cake and bread to take back to Petrograd. In Aug * 3< Dm 
the afternoon drove with the Grand Duchess 
up to the Blue Rocks, where there is a wonderful 
view. She told me that at a children's picnic 
in the mountains, at a place called " The Eagles' 
Nest," an enormous golden eagle planed above 
them. The children shouted out, " Aeroplane ! 
Aeroplane ! " So machinery displaces nature ! 
As I walked in the town later, was addressed in 
perfect English by a young Cossack who was 
riding, and whom we had met during our drive. 
Before dinner the Grand Duchess's presents were 
laid out on a table in her salon. I gave tuberoses 
as I did last year. 

KISLOVODSK. The Grand Duchess's fete-day, Saturday, 
St. Mary Magdalen. Woke up at 6 by my golden Aug< 4 * D ' 
orioles. At 12.30 the priest came and sang 
Te Deum. We sat down twenty-eight to luncheon 
on the veranda at three tables. 



1 84 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 KISLOVODSK. Fetched the cake and bread I 

Aug. 5^' D. h a d had baked, to take to Petrograd. Early 
dinner on account of me. Left at 8.30 for 
Petrograd. The Grand Duchess and her guests 
waved to me in the train from the veranda. 

Wednesday, TVER. From the railway-carriage gave a beggar 
boy white bread the first he had seen for three 
years ! 

Thursday, Arrived at 1.15 a.m. at Nicolai station, Petro- 
grad sixteen hours late ! To luncheon with 
Grand Duke Boris at Tsarskoe Selo. A long talk 
with him alone. 

Friday, To dine at the Embassy, also General Sir Charles 

Barter, General Knox, and Lord Ilchester (King's 
Messenger). Later with Ilchester to Yusupov 
Palace, where the gipsies sang. 

Saturday, The Emperor and his family are still at Tsarskoe 

Aug. II. JD. ri 1 1 1 ft 

belo ; no one knows the reason of the postpone- 
ment of their journey to Siberia. He was told 
about it and made no objection. It is true the 
Empress can't walk, but I 'doubt that being 
the cause. It had been arranged for Thurday, 
July 26. Everything seems quiet for the moment, 
but last night, coming away from the Yusupovs', 
there was a rifle-shot quite close to me. Nowadays 
a single shot can bring on a battle. One is 
almost more apprehensive of calm than of noise, 
but the Ambassador goes on Thursday for five 
days' rest to Finland, so I conclude he is not 
too worried for the moment. 

Want of bread brought on the Revolution, and 
the same may bring a counter-revolution. There 



DEPARTURE OF IMPERIAL FAMILY 185 

is nothing to eat : I suffer most from the absence 1917 
of butter. 

Returning home at an early hour this morning Saturday, 
down the Morskaia, a sentry called out something Aug * " D ' 
I did not understand. As I continued, he rushed 
at me with a fixed bayonet, presented to my breast. 
I would not go back and remained standing erect. 
Gulescu, the celebrated chef d'orchestre, who had 
been playing at our supper-party, driving by, 
jumped out of his carriage and explained matters. 
He interpreted for me : " Better go to the Front 
and kill Germans than a peaceable ally ! " 

The Emperor and his family left Tsarskoe Selo Tuesday, 
station this morning at 5.35 a.m. 

Fetched Madame Tatistchev from the Foreign Wednesday, 
Office to go to the church * of the Peter-Paul Aug> I5< D ' 
Fortress. The custodian told me that as many 
people come now as before the Revolution to 
put candles on the tomb of the Emperor Paul, 
which has always been an object of veneration, 
as the people believe it will bring back their ' 
sons safe from the war. I put two candles on 
the tomb, one for the Grand Duchess Vladimir, 
and one for myself, and afterwards we went 
on to the new church, where I put a candle 
on the tomb of the Grand Duke Vladimir. From 
there we drove to the convent where John of 
Cronstadt f was buried. At the Embassy told 
the Ambassador details of the Emperor's de- 

* The burial-place of the Emperors from Peter the Great 
to Alexander III, when the new church was required. 

t Religious adviser of Alexander III shortly before his 
death. 



1 86 RUSSIAN DIARY 

parture, whicn I had from an eye-witness. On 
the Palace Quay saw Kerenski in the Emperor's 
Rolls-Royce, talking with a friend. 

Sunday, It is a long time since I have written to you. 

At times I have only had little bits of news ; 
and I have been at Kislovodsk. 

I have the facts about the departure of the 
Emperor and family from one who was at the 
station. The train was to have started at 2 a.m., 
but owing to the quantity of luggage, which 
preceded them in a separate train, they did not 
leave till 5.35. The Guards gave the Emperor 
the salute when he left the palace. The Emperor. 
the Grand Duke Alexei, and the Empress, drove 
in an open automobile to the station, the four 
Grand Duchesses in another ; they were in white 
dresses. Their heads were shaved after the 
measles. The Emperor lit cigarettes incessantly, 
and threw them away. The Empress had tears 
in her eyes. The Grand Duke Alexei cried 
poor little boy ! You mustn't forget they had 
been waiting to leave since two o'clock, for over 
three hours. The four Grand Duchesses showed 
no emotion. 

The Grand Duke Michael motored yesterday 
from Gatchina to his cousin Boris's house in 
Tsarskoe Selo, where he left his wife, Countess 
Brassov. He then went to the palace and saw 
the Emperor ; they stood up for a little more 
than five minutes talking together. Kerenski 
and the officer on guard were in the room all 
the time and looked out of the window. The 




THE IMPERIAL FAMILY 



COUNT BENCKENDORFF 187 

Grand Duke Michael asked to see the Empress ; 1917 
it was not allowed. The brothers embraced. 
The Grand Duke Boris told me that when his 
cousin came back from the interview he was 
so upset he couldn't speak. Count Benckendorff 
some days later asked Kerenski a question a 
propos of something relating to the palace, and 
Kerenski answered : " They will be back here in 
November." 

The climate of Tobolsk is good, especially 
in the autumn. The last 400 versts down the 
river is done on American steamers, which are 
quite comfortable. Convicts were never sent 
there. I think it will make a bad impression 
on the Russian people that Siberia should have 
been chosen for the Imperial residence, as the 
Emperor now becomes a victim instead of a 
prisoner. If it had been this side of the Urals 
less impression would have been made, but that 
the Lord's Anointed should be sent to Siberia 
may hurt the amour-propre of the people. 

They were to have left on July 26, but at the 
last moment the departure was cancelled. Count 
Elie Leonidovich Tatistchev,* le plus brave des 
braves, has gone in the place of Benckendorff, 
who is suffering from his eyes. The Empress 
left a letter to thank him for his services of twenty- 
three years he is the only person whom she is 
known to have thanked. 

* When Kerenski sent for him and asked whether he would 
go to Siberia he said, " I must go wherever you order me." 
"It is to accompany the Emperor to Siberia." He replied, 
" I will do whatever the Emperor commands." And he went. 



1 88 RUSSIAN DIARY 

J 9 J 7 They are accompanied by Markarov, who looks 

after the palaces, works of art, and archives. 
He is the good genius of Kerenski. The Empress 
says, " We have not suffered enough for all the 
faults we have committed." To me it seems 
that, through her fault, husband, children, family, 
and country have all suffered more than enough. 

General Gourko is in a dry room in the Peter- 
Paul Fortress, and his wife has been allowed 
to join him there. There is personal spite in 
his detention. I went yesterday to the church 
in the fortress, where the Emperors are buried. 
All is in perfect order and the lights burning 
on the different tombs. The tomb of the Emperor 
Paul was ablaze with candles, and on it was a 
large bunch of white lilies. He has always been 
looked upon by the people as a martyr, and 
prayers to him are believed to bring back alive 
and well those at the war. They assured me 
the Revolution makes no difference to the popular 
devotion. The Russians respect the dead, if 
they do not the living. 

I went on July 28 to Kislovodsk, where the 
Grand Duchess Vladimir is still staying. I 
took money to her, as one can trust nobody 
nowadays. I arrived quite unexpectedly and 
stayed in her villa for five nights. Although 
it is quite small they managed to make room 
for me. I was there in time for her fete, August 4. 
After the le Deum in the villa, the old parish 
priest said a few words : "As Mary Magdalen 
was the first to know of the Resurrection of 



PRINCESS IRENE YUSUPOV 189 

Christ, so may you, after all your suffering, be 1917 
the first to know that the order of former days 
has come back to Russia." It was very brave 
of the old man to dare say so much. The Grand 
Duchess was much hnue. She is better in health 
now that she has been released after three months' 
detention, and is taking baths for her heart. 
She lives with a few old servants and had the 
happy idea of getting a dozen Cossacks from 
a village in the hills all of one family to pro- 
tect her. They give no bother, and do their 
two hours' duty at the entrance of the villa and 
garden, and are devoted and attentive. The 
Grand Duchess asked me, if the occasion presented 
itself, to assure the King and Queen of her deepest 
affection, and to say how she envied everybody 
who lived in a country where there were police- 
men. She has applied for permission to travel 
if it should be necessary for some personal or 
family reason ; the Grand Duke Boris already 
has this permission. 

The news from the Crimea has not been good, 
but I expect you know all about that. Princess 
Irene Yusupov went to see Kerenski in the 
Winter Palace in the apartments of Emperor 
Alexander III to ask that that Emperor's widow 
should not be ill-treated ! I think it was brave 
of her ; there is so little of her ! But she told 
me that, once in the room, she was no longer 
frightened, and although at first Kerenski de- 
clared he could do nothing, he ended by acceding 
to all she asked. She is a plucky little thing and 



190 RUSSIAN DIARY 

19*7 clever. Kerenski did not kiss her hand nor 
open the door for her, because she got to it before 
he did. He did not keep her waiting. The 
result of all this will be at least we hope so 
that the Empress Marie will come to Finland 
and eventually get to Denmark. 

The Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievich is still 
under arrest in the Crimea, and the Empress 
Marie, though no longer under arrest, is not 
allowed to leave the house. A telegram to that 
effect came to the Yusupovs while I was lunching 
there ; they left the same night for the Crimea. 

I think this is all my news. I am going to-night 
to General Headquarters at Moghilev, and may 
be away for a few days ; afterwards I hope to 
be able to leave for England, so please do not 
trouble to acknowledge this letter. 

The Government gets weaker every day ; they 
missed the psychological moment for gaining 
complete control after the Bolshevik Revolution 
(July 1 8), which, by the way, was a most unpleasant 
experience. Kornilov is a strong little man, and 
we may yet see him at the head of a military 
dictatorship. I foresee much trouble ahead and 
much bloodshed. 

Monday, Arrived Moghilev 1.40 p.m. ; Staff automobile 

Aug. 20. D. to meet me< TQ H6tel Bristol? ^ere the Allied 

officers are lodged. From there to the Aviation 
H.Q., where the General-in-Command, a Caucasian, 
immediately received me. 

Tuesday, MOGHILEV. To the Catholic Cathedral, endowed 

Aug. 21. D. ^ t ^ Empress Catherine, the Metropolitan 



AT MOGHILEV 191 

Church of all the Catholics in Russia an im- 1917 
posing edifice. Saw the Caucasian General, who 
was most courteous and interested. Had a large 
sack made and filled with white bread to take 
to Petrograd. After dinner drove over the Dnieper 
Bridge through the lower town, and along the 
Moscow chausste for a couple of miles. This is 
the best road in Russia, specially made with a 
steam-roller for the Emperor when he took over 
the Supreme Command from his cousin. 

MOGHILEV. At the Wireless H.Q. met my Wednesday, 
Caucasian General, who took me into the officers' ug ' 22 ' 
room, presented me to them, and scolded them 
for not looking after me properly. Back to the 
Bristol to luncheon with the Allied Staff, at the 
invitation of General Sir Charles Barter. Sat 
between him and Mordveno, an amusing Russian, 
in whose villa I stayed at Yalta with the Obo- 
lenskis. Beyond him was the Rumanian General, 
in great spirits because of the Rumanian good 
news and resistance to Mackensen. At the head 
of the table was the Italian Captain Massengha, 
a friend of all my friends, agreeable and gay. 
Our General was on his left. Opposite us were 
two French officers, a major and a captain. The 
major excessively nice, a Frenchman at his very 
best. At the other end of the table were Major 
Neilson and Lieut. Porters, of our Staff. The lun- 
cheon was not bad, although the General complained. 
Compared with Petrograd, I thought it delicious. 
After luncheon he took me to his room, gave me 
a cigar, and told me many interesting things. 



192 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 General Barter is the right man in the right 

place at the present moment. At Stavka, owing 
to him, England has it all her own way. He is 
the only Staff representative asked by Kornilov 
to go to Moscow for the Conference : I was told 
by the other Allied representatives that he has 
the complete confidence of Kornilov, whom he 
sees twice a day and plays cards with. The 
French are rather out of favour, from their ex- 
pressing too openly their opinion of the disgraceful 
conduct of the Russian Army. 

Lieut. Porters came to the door to see me off 
in the car ordered for me by the General. At 
the station, three versts away, found my reserved 
compartment in the Stavka carriage, which was 
attached to the Kiev express, guarded by an 
N.C.O. with two soldiers. Travelled with George 
Popovich, cousin of the King of Montenegro, on 
his way from visiting Kornilov, whom he had 
known all his life, having been brought up in 
Russia. 

He told me that one regiment wrote to Kornilov, 
" Please give us a flag and take away the Red 
Flag, for the Germans taunt us and say a red 
flag is the sign of a house of ill-fame ! " 

Aug. 22. Kornilov has for his bodyguard a squadron 

Narrative. of Turkestan Cossacks brought from the Cau- 
casian Front. They run small, of a strong Mon- 
golian type, and are terrifying to look at, with 
enormous sheepskin caps, generally brown, a 
few white worn at the back of the head, so 
that the long fur falls away at an angle. There 



KORNILOV'S BODYGUARD 193 

was only one tall one amongst them. Their 1917 
breeches are of a faded rose-colour, and they 
carry yataghans as sharp as razors they can 
shave their arms with them ! besides a dagger 
and revolver. They are wonderful riders, looking 
as though they are one with their horses. They 
put the fear of God into the Russian infantry 
soldiers ; if one of them approaches a knot of 
soldiers talking politics, the knot fades away 
like snow before the sun. A woman who had 
lived with one transferred her affections to a 
comrade : her first admirer threw her over 
the bridge into the Dnieper, where she was 
drowned. No one said or did anything, or thought 
it strange. 

Sitting in the public garden opposite my hotel, 
where the crows and jackdaws come back in 
hundreds to roost at night in the elms, waking 
me up every morning at daylight when they go 
off to the plains for the day, I noticed a pretty 
girl of the working class talking to her friend 
who keeps the newspaper kiosk at the corner. 
A knot of Cossacks standing near were evidently 
attracted by her, but she took no heed of them 
until the tall, good-looking one with a white 
sheepskin cap joined them* She moved towards 
them, and there was an animated conversation 
lasting nearly an hour, with the result that she 
and he walked away together, leaving the rest 
furious and scowling. Later in the day she 
was wearing a new black silk dress ; in the 
evening I met them on the chaussee in a three- 

N 



194 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 horse izvoscbik, and next morning they were 
sitting close together on a bench in the garden. 

Friday, PETROGRAD. No milk. Failing to find Ambas- 

sador yesterday on arrival, called to-day to give 
him my Stavka news. 

Friday, Have just seen a procession with Red Flag, 

ug ' 24 ' ' so I suppose we are in for more riots a great 
nuisance. The Government weakens daily, and 
at the appointed time Kornilov will come at the 
head of a regenerated army to save Petrograd. 
If he succeeds, then an Emperor in three months, 
I say ! 

Aug. 25. Last night all the Ministers left for the Moscow 

Narrative. Conference in four ordinary trains between 10.30 
p.m. and 11.20 p.m. Kerenski, who had declined 
the companionship of Terestchenko, left by himself 
in the Emperor's train, arrived in Moscow at 
1 1. 2 a.m. and drove straight to the Kremlin. 

Kornilov, who had come unexpectedly to Petro- 
grad on Thursday night from Moghilev, passed 
several hours closeted with Kerenski in the Winter 
Palace, returning at one o'clock in the morning 
on Friday to Moghilev, and leaving the same 
evening for Moscow, which was reached on Satur- 
day afternoon. He was accompanied from the 
station by more automobiles than Kerenski. He 
brought his escort of Turkestan Cossacks with 
him and drove straight to the Iberski Chapel, 
where is the miraculous icon of the Iberia Virgin, 
at the entrance to the Kremlin, and where the 
Emperors always prayed before entering the 
Kremlin. The Cossacks cleared the people away 



KERENSKI AS DICTATOR 195 

and made a line on each side, and Kornilov went 1917 
in alone to pray. At a meeting of the Generals 
who had come to Moscow for the Conference 
they implored Kornilov to give them a Chief or 
an Emperor, or else to make himself head of the 
nation. 

On the first day of the Conference Kerenski 
had a military and naval representative standing 
on either side of his chair. This the Reds objected 
to as ridiculous ; he did not do it again. His 
speech was so unintelligible that it had later to be 
dictated to the Press representatives. 

When he travels by train he often orders the 
speed to be increased, regardless of the utter con- 
fusion it causes all down the lines he is travelling 
on. The Emperor the Autocrat never did this ; 
he was far too considerate of the convenience of 
others and of the welfare of his country. 

I must rest. I am nearly as thin as when Sunday, 
I was so ill ; there is nothing to eat here no Aug ' 26< L * 
butter for four days. I don't mind. I don't 
complain. Je constate. I had to go to Stavka 
glorious weather, and I enjoyed my visit. 
Some one says, " The fear of Russia is worse 
than Russia," and I am sure it is true. During 
the actual riots I thoroughly enjoy the street 
fighting, but I am worried to death while it 
threatens, and dead tired after it is over. 

I write often to Dmitri Pavlovich, who is in 
Teheran. Felix Yusupov and his wife have gone 
back to the Crimea better so. I gave him a good 
talking to. I dine two or three times a week 



196 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 with Boris Vladimirovich. He has the good heart 
of his grandfather. I expect bad times again 
before long. 

Tuesday, Bacher, of the Entente, the newspaper which 

renders the cause of the Allies such good service, 
came to consult me. To Embassy ; His Ex- 
cellency and Lady Georgina, just leaving for 
Islands, asked me to accompany them. I ex- 
plained Bacher's newspaper scheme to him. Met 
a dead man, propped up in an izvosckik. Nothing 
surprises one in Russia ! 

Aug. 28. L. Since writing to you last week I have spent 
three days at General Headquarters at Moghilev, 
and I thought perhaps my impressions from there 
might interest any who read this letter. 

Kornilov came to Petrograd to see Kerenski ; 
the beastly Soviet of Workmen and Soldiers 
wishes to turn out Kornilov because they see 
he is gradually gaining the hearts of the troops 
that is to say, already the 600,000 Cossacks, the 
cavalry, and the greater part of the south-western 
army. 

Kerenski's opening speech at the Moscow Con- 
ference was a great failure ; it was in the same 
strain as he has been accustomed to use towards 
truculent soldiers. His course has now nearly 
run. Things are very different from what they 
were twelve years ago. After 1905, by- the sup- 
port of the Army all came straight ; now the 
loss of the Army on the second day of the Revo- 
lution brought about the fall of the Emperor. 
A short time ago the Grand Duke Michael went 



GENERAL KORNILOV 197 

as a simple citizen to the cinema at Gatchina. 1917 
He was recognised by the soldiers, who sang the 
hymn, "God save the Tsar." He fled, and 
rightly too. At a theatre in Moscow they began 
to play the " Marseillaise " ; the people cried 
"Davolny" ("Enough"), and then the band 
played " God save the Tsar." 

Kornilov's mother is a native of Turkestan. 
He is always supposed to have been with the 
Boers in their war with England. When asked 
about this, he smiles and says, " Not at all. 
I was in plain clothes in the North- West Provinces 
of India, working for the Russian Secret Service." 
He talks English perfectly. Thousands , of letters 
reach him from the Front. An artillery battery, 
asking his permission to fire on an infantry 
regiment near them, wrote, " They call them- 
selves Fils de la Patrie, but they are really Fils 
des chiens." 

Our War Office certainly made a most lucky 
choice in Sir Charles Barter, qui s'impose, which 
is exactly what is always required in Russia now 
more than ever. 

I have heard no private news direct from 
Tobolsk, but I hear that the former Governor's 
palace where the Emperor and his family are 
has very few rooms, though the park around is 
fairly large. An English merchant whom I know 
has been there, and tells me the climate is not 
bad except for being actually in Asia it has 
none of the disadvantages of Siberia. 

I am glad to see the firm support our Ambas- 



198 RUSSIAN DIARY 

sador always receives in the House of Commons. 
He has been so wonderful, bearing all the weight 
of the Allies on his shoulders, and receiving all 
the knocks pour quatre. I can't think why the 
Government does not send for him to come to 
England and give them first-hand information 
of the exact position. Besides, poor man ! he 
deserves a long rest. There is an epidemic of 
dysentery in Petrograd and in many towns ; 
he had a touch last week. The weather is not 
too hot now like September in Italy. I hope 
to leave in a fortnight, and shall be pleased to 
quit this distressful country, though I have 
an immense love for Russia. There is nothing 
to eat in Petrograd no milk, no bread, no 
butter. 

I hear of a pitched battle in Riga between 
the Letts and the Russian soldiers. The Germans 
send over three-rouble notes to the Russian 
trenches in the night. It is thought that the 
notes are made in Germany, but that I am not 
sure of. Perhaps even before I leave things may 
come to a head, from something I have just 
heard in which case I shall see Petrograd again 
soaked in blood ; but it is better so. The trouble 
must be ended and done with, and great evils 
require great remedies. 

P.S. To-day is fete. I looked into the Votive 
Church which is built over the place where 
Alexander II was assassinated. It was full, and 
at the end of the service, as before the Revolution, 
the clergy went to the west end of the church 



REQUIEM SERVICE FOR ALEXANDER II 199 

to say the prayers for the dead Emperor on the 1917 
spot where under a canopy hung with many 
lamps burning night and day the pavement is 
kept exactly as it was in the street in 1880. At 
the moment when they said the prayer for the 
repose of his soul every one knelt down, including 
all the soldiers and even the wounded soldiers. 

I forget if I have already written in a previous 
letter the following true story. On March 13 
fourth day of the Revolution and thirty- 
seventh anniversary of the Emperor's murder 
a requiem was being sung at one of the Petro- 
grad churches. A soldier called out, " Don't 
you know there is a Revolution, and nobody 
prays for dead Emperors ? " The priest turned 
round and said, " In Heaven there is no revo- 
lution," and continued the service. 

There is an excellent French daily newspaper 
called UEntente, which gives all the news and 
warmly supports the Allies. 

On my way back from Embassy Bacher thanked Wednesday, 
me for arranging interview, and told me how Au S* 2 9- 
much impressed he was with His Excellency's 
kindness and perspicuity. 

The Empress Marie's health has lately been Saturday, 
giving anxiety the result of all the trials she Sept< I ' 
has undergone. She has to keep quiet and is 
not allowed to leave her room. She has now 
been told about the departure of her son and his 
family for Tobolsk, and is naturally much upset. 
Kerenski has telegraphed to get news of her for the 
Embassy, as the newspapers give alarming reports. 



200 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 We are all very worried again. The Govern- 

ment, in its fear of the Soviet, still hesitates 
to give Kornilov the necessary powers to ensure 
discipline in the Army. The burning of Kasan 
was done by soldiers supplied with drink by 
German agents. The same thing could just as 
well happen here any day la Jacquerie, which 
for some time I have feared. I hope to be able 
to leave in ten days, but between now and then 
much may happen. 

Sunday, Dined with friends in a private room at Felicien's, 

a restaurant on the Islands, on the edge of the 
water, in front of the Empress Marie's former 
palace whose park is now planted with potatoes 
and more beautifully situated than any other 
restaurant in Europe. Marvellous evening the 
sun set in glory with aeroplanes quivering against 
the golden glow. A few boats gliding by and 
occasional tsigane songs sung. We left in absolute 
stillness. 

Friday, The Grand Dukes Michael and Paul, with 

" their respective families, have both been placed 

under arrest in their own homes. Rumour declares 

that this is due to their wives' irresponsible 

political chatter. 

When the Imperial exiles were leaving for 
Siberia, some one in the hearing of the little 
Tzesarevich remarked : " What a beautiful auto- 
mobile Kerenski has got ! " The boy said, " Why, 
it is one of papa's ! " 

I have means of knowing that we are on the 
1 eve of great events, but we shall have to wade 



KORNILOV AND KERENSKI 201 

in blood before the liberation of Russia is / 1917 
attained. 

At Raoult, the wine-merchant's, I saw a militia- Saturday, 
man make a scene with a soldier who had a Sept> 8 - D - 
permit for wine. He was a Bolshevik pretending 
to be a police-agent, in order to confiscate the 
wine for his own benefit, but the soldier got 
away. 

Due de Luynes arrived from Rumania and Sunday, 
left at night for Europe. Bacher, of the Entente, Sept 9 ' D ' 
came to say that the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Terestchenko, while en route for Stavka to nego- 
tiate with Kornilov, had been stopped by telegram 
from Kerenski. Bacher did not yet know the 
reason. I telephoned this at once to the Embassy. 

In the evening, about 7, Bacher telephoned 
me that grave events were happening ; he would 
give me particulars later. I conveyed this also 
to Lady Georgina, who was waiting for His 
Excellency's return. He had been telephoned for 
in the afternoon by the Foreign Office, where he 
went on his return. Bacher arrived just after 
nine o'clock and told me the whole story that 
Terestchenko had been recalled by Kerenski be- 
cause Kornilov had sent an ultimatum to the Pro- 
visional Government and had arrested Filinenkov 
at Stavka. On that, Kerenski summarily dismissed 
Kornilov from the High Command, but the latter 
refused point-blank to give it up, and was about to 
march on Petrograd with his Cossacks. 

At Madame Polovtsov's, where I went at ten 
o'clock, all this was confirmed. It was already 



202 RUSSIAN DIARY 

long past midnight when I got back, and I 
received another message from Bacher, who turned 
up at three o'clock in the morning with the news 
that there had been a slight detente, but that, 
all the same, Kornilov with his Cossacks would 
certainly come to Petrograd. 

Monday, No bread since Friday. Did not see Bacher 

all day. He came at two o'clock next morning ; 
the news he brought then was all good. The 
Ismailovski Guards Regiment had gone over to 
Kornilov, who had already 70,000 troops with 
him. 

Tuesday, Bread only one slice ! Fete-day, but very 

few people at the Kasan Sobor (cathedral in the 
Nevski) sure sign of the general unrest. Myriads 
of candles burning before the Kasan icon. In 
the afternoon to the church of the Ismailovski 
Barracks and saw four lorries delivering cart- 
ridges at the barracks. Some officers told me 
they had met the Grand Duke Michael in a 
guarded car. He had been brought up from 
Gatchina to the Etat-Major. My windows open 
all day, in order to hear the first signs of the 
Cossacks' arrival. As the afternoon advanced 
and I heard no firing, my heart sank, with a 
presentiment that the coup d'etat had failed. 

Left at 5 on pressing invitation to dine j at 
Tsarskoe Selo with the Grand Duke Boris, whom 
I found sitting in a chair looking the picture 
of misery the first time he has been really de- 
pressed since the abdication. On the way down, 
troops all along the track. The private line of 



FAILURE OF KORNILOV 203 

the Emperor, till now untouched, blown up. It 1917 
connected the main lines. Before going to dinner 
drove to Pavlovsk in hopes of getting in touch 
with Kornilov's advance-guard, who were occu- 
pying the woods. The Government troops would 
not allow me to pas. The telephone to Petrograd 
was cut. 

These last few days have seemed like a life- Wednesday, 
time. Yesterday I went through more conflicting Sept< I2 ' ' 
emotions than at any time since the murder 
of the " Unmentionable." The announcement of 
Kornilov's submission, though published by all 
the newspapers, comes only from the Provisional 
Government. Several members of a French Mis- 
sion, whom I met in the hall of the hotel, credited 
this news. They all thought it was a tragedy. 
For my part, I am still not quite sure ; it re- 
quires time to verify Provisional Government 
" news." Meanwhile there is nothing heard from 
Kornilov. 

Ill all to-day from overstrung nerves after Thursday, 
the intense excitement of yesterday. People of pt ' I3 ' 
all classes profoundly disappointed at the tragedy 
of Kornilov's miscalculation. On Kornilov's ap- 
proach sixty thousand workmen were armed by 
the Provisional Government. They keep their arms, 
so we are completely in their power. Saint- 
Sauveur told me a regiment at Viborg had killed 
its officers. At 6.30, as I had shown no sign 
of life all day, Lady Georgina telephoned to ask 
if I had any news. 

It is all over ! Kornilov has failed. How 



204 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 it happened we don't know yet, but to-day he 
is to be brought to Petrograd under arrest. If 
he had succeeded as he ought to have done, 
once he had embarked on so important an under- 
taking we should have had order restored. 

At noon at the Embassy saw Captain Rowland 
Smith, whose judgment is invariably right. Fore- 
seeing the failure of Kornilov, he explained his 
reasons to me two days before, when Kornilov's 
success was still in the balance. He does not 
think there was any treachery, because of the 
fear inspired in Petrograd by the expectation 
of Kornilov's arrival. 

To give you an idea of this dread of Kornilov's 
impending arrival : During Monday and Tuesday 
the deserters, who for months had filled the 
streets and crammed the trams, all vanished. 
The Grand Duke Andre's palace had been com- 
mandeered by the Provisional Government for 
Tchernov, the Minister of Agriculture a German 
Jew whose real name is Liebermann. At 3 a.m. 
on Tuesday morning with automobiles waiting 
since midnight he and his wife and beastly 
ill-mannered children and household, anticipating 
Kornilov's entry into Petrograd, hastily cleared 
out, and it was only after midday that they 
sneaked back in bits to reoccupy the palace. 
If only Kornilov had arrived, Petrograd was 
his for sure. History repeats itself 18 Fructidor I 

From Tobolsk one hears that all the peasants 
from miles around several hundred thousand, 
without exaggeration led by a holy man, kneel 



GRAND DUKES UNDER ARREST 205 

outside the palace at Tobolsk and pray for the 1917 
Emperor. The soldiers cannot drive them away. 
They have proclaimed him " Emperor of Siberia." 
This item of news, as might be guessed, is not 
allowed to be published in the newspapers ! 

The arrested Grand Dukes and their families 
are all in Petrograd to-day, lodged in the Home 
Office. Thanks to those two silly women, prob- 
ably all the Grand Dukes will go to Siberia ! My 
Grand Duchess is quietly living in the Caucasus, 
and if she is sent to Siberia I fear much for her 
health. She lives her own quiet life, et elle ne se 
mele de rien. The wedding of the little Grand 
Duchess Marie II, which was to have taken place 
on Sunday, was fixed for yesterday ; but owing 
to absence of witnesses, and other reasons, it has 
again been put off. She is living at Pavlovsk with 
her grandmother, Olga, Queen of the Hellenes. 
She is marrying a young man of highest character 
a few months younger than herself, Prince Alex- 
ander Putiatin. I feel sure they will be quite 
happy. 

As the Kornilov attempt to bring order has 
failed, I will tell you what I foresee now, for 
the cards are shuffled again. Kerenski is already 
in the hands of the Soviet. The Soviet now 
have virtually full power, and the Bolsheviki 
will become more daring and try to turn out the 
Government ; then would come anarchy, with 
70,000 workmen fully armed. With the Bolsheviki 
are all the criminal classes. The failure of Kor- 
nilov has completely knocked me over, and 



206 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 yesterday I could not walk. I still foresee an 
ocean of blood before order comes. 

Later, same Went for a walk and met the Grand Duchess 
Marie II with her fiance. She tells me the wed- 
ding is postponed in the hopes of her father 
the Grand Duke Paul's relief from arrest, of which 
she thinks there is a chance, as there was nothing 
against him personally. 

Friday, In the evening learnt from Lady Georgina 

that the Ambassador was ill in bed with fever. 
In the middle of the night I was called to the 
telephone and told that Kerenski had resigned, 
that Tchernov and Skobolev were to form a 
Ministry supreme authority thus passing into 
the hands of the Soviet. Learnt later that at 
three o'clock in the morning the Soviet members 
of the Ministry left en masse for the Smolny 
Institute, leaving Kerenski, with four other 
Ministers, again in power after an all-night sitting 
till 7. How long he can retain it remains to 
be seen. An undiluted Soviet Government would 
mean massacres and a separate peace with Ger- 
many. 

Saturday, No news all day. Everything quite quiet 
much too quiet, in fact. Late at night came 
the statement that the Soviet had given the 
Provisional Government ten days' respite from 
interference ; that Terestchenko had been to see 
the British Ambassador before noon ; and that 
in the afternoon the Allied Ambassadors had 
assembled at the British Embassy and been 
admitted to His Excellency's bedroom, where 



REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED 207 

they stayed nearly two hours. Happily he is 1917 
better to-night. At seven o'clock I felt more 
reassured on the situation and at eleven o'clock 
still more so. 

Lovely autumn weather. Gordon Bennett wired Sunday, 
me to interview Kerenski for a hundred-word Sept * l6 ' D ' 
message to New York Herald, on situation. Wrote 
about this to Terestchenko.* 

My letter had hardly left on Saturday, Sep- Monday, 
tember 15, when the news came in that Kerenski Sept I7 ' L ' 
remains in power and the Soviet leaves him in 
peace for ten days. This news was very re- 
assuring after the fear of Skobolev and Tchernov's 
being in power, as they were, for about three 
hours that night. 

On Saturday at midday the Provisional Govern- 
ment sent guards for the English Embassy, but 
by the evening the situation had calmed and 
yesterday the Republic was announced. Given 
that Kornilov is beaten, the strengthening of 
the Provisional Government is all that one can 
ask for. 

In the meantime the news from different towns 
is most disquieting. Twenty-six generals and 
officers were massacred at Viborg. An English 
lady saw it all. A poor officer who had been 
thrown into the river swam about for nearly 
an hour, pelted by the soldiers with logs of wood. 
One general insisted on jumping off the bridge, 
instead of being thrown ! This has been followed 
by a massacre of officers at Dvinsk. A Prince 
* I left before this was arranged. 



208 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 Viazemski has been murdered by his peasants 
his eyes first put out and his sufferings prolonged 
several hours. His young wife was in the house 
and had to witness it all. 

To-night the priest leaves for Helsingfors to 
baptize the Grand Duke KyrilFs baby Vladimir. 
The Grand Duke Boris is godfather, but has been 
advised by the Government not to go there. 

If the Soviet gets the upper hand, the Emperor 
may be tried, and all the Imperial family will 
run great risks, and peace with Germany will be 
made in forty-eight hours. So you will realise 
what my fear was on Saturday, as long as I was 
under the impression of the Soviet's being in 
power. No respectable person's life would be 
worth a couple of sous. 

Last night I dined at the Embassy. The 
Ambassador still in bed with fever. Lady Barclay 
(wife of our Minister at Jassy) and General Sir 
Charles Barter from Stavka dined. He had seen 
Kerenski during the day, if not exactly to in- 
tercede for Kornilov, at least to explain the actual 
situation to him. There is still a mystery about 
the failure, but there is no doubt that Kerenski 
was in the complot with Kornilov, and that 
through Lvov's treachery or madness Kerenski 
left Kornilov in the lurch.* 
Sept. 20. L. I have just received a letter from the Grand 

* Lvov cousin of the former President of the Council 
was sent from Moscow by Kerenski to see how the land lay 
at Moghilev and report to him. Apparently he was taken 
into Kornilov's confidence, and is said to have given the 
General away to Kerenski possibly in a fit of insanity. 



PETROGRAD WITHOUT BREAD 209 

Duchess from Kislovodsk, telling me that the 1917 
night before September 13-14 she wrote that 
the Committee of Workmen and Soldiers came 
to her house at 2.30 a.m. and stayed till 6, opening, 
searching, and turning everything topsy-turvy. I 
have written at once to Terestchenko to apprise 
him of the fact. As we are in a Republic, the 
Grand Duchess has as much right to be protected 
as he himself, or the man who cleans my boots. 

The little Grand Duchess Marie was at last 
married yesterday afternoon at Pavlovsk. 

I have no news from the Crimea, but an English- 
man who had proposed himself to stay there 
with friends received a letter saying he had much 
better not come. 

At the Embassy last night found the Ambassador Sept. 21. 
better ; he has been out. We are still being 
threatened for next Tuesday or Wednesday with 
a demonstration by the Bolsheviki. This, though 
it has been so constantly promised and so much 
talked about, may end only in words. Anyhow, 
the ten days' grace the Soviet have allowed the 
Provisional Government is over on Tuesday. 

No bread yesterday or to-day. To Embassy Monday, 
to see the Naval Attache, Commander Grenfell, Se P t - 2 4-. > - 
to thank him for his kindly assistance during 
my stay. Dined at Donon's. The Preobrajenski 
Guards, on their own, held up the restaurant 
and searched for wine, and took away everything 
they thought fit, including my dinner ! 

Yesterday to Tsarskoe Selo to wish the Grand Wednesday, 
Duke Boris "Good-bye and Good Luck." He Sept - 26 ' jD ' 

o 



210 RUSSIAN DIARY 

1917 ! was very sad, and said, " You are my last link 
with civilisation." On my return, went to the 
Embassy to thank His Excellency and Lady 
Georgina for their infinite kindness to me during 
my sojourn in Russia. 

This morning left Petrograd at 7.30 for England. 

Sunday* , ABERDEEN. Landed at Q a.m. ; delighted to 
Oct. 6. D. \ v 

see policemen again. 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 

PETITION TO THE EMPEROR ON BEHALF 
OF THE GRAND DUKE DMITRI PAVLO- 
VICH, AND THE EMPEROR'S REPLY 
THERETO 

YOUR MAJESTY, We all, whose names you will 
find at the end of this letter, implore you to recon- 
sider your harsh decision concerning the fate of 
the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich. 

We know that he is ill and quite unnerved by 
all he has gone through. You, who were his 
Guardian and his Supreme Protector in infancy 
and boyhood, well know how deeply he loved You 
and Our Country. 

Most heartily do we implore Your Majesty, in 
consideration of his weak health and his youth, 
to allow the Grand Duke to go and live on his 
own estates, either at Oncova or at Illinskoe. 

Your Majesty must know the very hard condi- 
tions under which our troops have to live in Persia 
without shelter and in constant peril to health and 
life. 

To have to live there would be for the Grand 
Duke almost certain death, and in the heart of 
Your Majesty surely a feeling of pity will be 

213 



214 RUSSIAN DIARY 

awakened towards this young man who from child- 
hood had the joy of living in your house, and 
whom you loved and to whom you used to be like 
a father. 

May God inspire you and guide you to turn 
wrath into mercy ! 

Your Majesty's most loving and devoted, 

OLGA, Queen of Greece ; 
MARIE, Grand Duchess Vladimir ; 

KYRILL, VICTORIA, BORIS, ANDR 
(her children) ; 

PAUL (father) ; 
MARIE (sister) ; 
ELIZABETH, Grand Duchess Constantine ; 

JOANNA, HLENE, GABRIEL, 

CONSTANTINE, IGOR (her children) ; 
NICOLAI MICHAILOVICH ; 
SERGEI MICHAILOVICH. 



Nobody has the right to kill on his own private 
judgment. I know that there are many others besides 
Dmitri Pavlovich whose consciences give them no 
rest, because they are compromised. I am astonished 
that you should have applied to me. NICOLAI.* 



* The petition was endorsed by the Emperor in these 
cms. 



terms 



APPENDIX II 

MEMORANDUM PRIVATELY CIRCULATED 
ON DECEMBER 31, 1916 

The following narrative represents what was gene- 
rally believed, up to the time of the revolution, 
about the death of Rasputin 

GREGORY RASPUTIN was shot in a room in the 
basement of the palace of Prince Yusupov on the 
Moika Canal shortly after 7 o'clock on the morning 
of December 30, 1917 (N.S.). The Grand Duke 
Dmitri Pavlovich, Princes Feodor and Nikita 
Alexandrovich, and the young Prince Felix Yusupov 
were in the palace, and were all privy to the shoot- 
ing. Conjointly with other young Princes of the 
Blood, including the sons of the late Grand Duke 
Constantine, they had decided some time previously 
to " remove " Rasputin, because they regarded 
him as the cause of a dangerous scandal affecting 
the interests of the Dynasty and the Empire. So 
many persons being involved in the plot, rumours 
were bound to leak out, and as far back as Monday 
last it was reported that Rasputin's death might 
be expected at any time. It was even understood 
that one of the sons of the Grand Duke Constantine 
had been selected by lot to perform the deed, but 

215 



216 RUSSIAN DIARY 

that he had hesitated and the execution been 
consequently postponed. 

Prince Yusupov and the young Princes, his 
brothers-in-law, together with the other Imperial 
Princes, used to assemble at night at the Yusupov 
Palace, and to these gatherings they frequently 
invited Rasputin, their object being to extract from 
him as much information as possible as to the 
doings of august personages. While under the 
influence of liquor, Rasputin would give away, not 
only his own secrets, but also those of the various 
Ministerial and other political changes that have 
so much incensed Russian public opinion within 
recent months notably the dismissal of Sazonov, 
the appointment of Stunner, and the successive 
and persistent failures to introduce a stable Ministry 
and internal reforms. 

It was at these nocturnal meetings that the idea 
of removing Rasputin assumed concrete form. 
When the Duma was suddenly prorogued on 
December 29, the princely conspirators decided 
that further delay would be dangerous. The 
disclosures made by Rasputin himself left no 
doubts in the minds of his hosts that he had also 
played some part in the prorogation of the Duma. 
This only strengthened their resolve to do away 
with him at once. They accordingly invited him 
to meet them as usual, and, in order to allay his 
possible suspicions, some of Rasputin's lady friends 
were included in the invitation. 

From the reports of the police investigations 
cited below, and from other information obtained 



APPENDIX II 217 

by reporters on the staff of the Novoe Vremya^ it 
would appear that about 2.30 at night Rasputin 
was told that he would have to die, and he was 
given the option of committing suicide or being 
killed. A revolver was placed in his hand, but 
he flatly declined to commit suicide and discharged 
the weapon somewhere in the direction of the 
Grand Duke Dmitri. The bullet smashed a pane 
of glass, and the sound attracted the attention of 
the police outside. Subsequently he was killed 
and his body removed to a place unknown, presum- 
ably Tsarskoe Selo. 



APPENDIX III 

THE POLICE REPORT OF DECEMBER 30, 1916 

The following is a literal translation of the Official 
Report handed in by the Police 

TO-DAY at about 2.30 in the morning, the police- 
man who stands on guard at the house of the 
Home Office situated on the Morskaia heard a 
detonation from the palace of Prince Yusupov 
situated on the opposite side of the Moika. As 
this post is a special one and the policeman on 
duty is forbidden to leave it, he went into the 
Home Office premises and communicated by tele- 
phone with the police sergeant on duty at the 
adjoining station. Then the news of the shooting 
was passed on to the Kasan police district in 
which the palace is situated. The chief police 
officer, Colonel Rogov, with a detachment of men, 
proceeded to the spot. Examination of the dvornik 
on duty at the adjoining house elicited the fact 
that the shot had been fired from the young 
Prince's side of the palace. In order to ascertain 
the causes of the shooting in the palace, the assistant 
police officer, Captain Krylov, was ordered to enter 
the building, and he was informed by the butler 
that a reception was proceeding inside, and that 

218 



APPENDIX III 219 

one of the guests, while practising at a target, had 
missed his aim and fired into the window, in proof 
whereof Captain Krylov was shown the broken 
window on the ground floor overlooking the fore- 
court of the adjoining house. The data obtained 
through the investigations were communicated by 
Colonel Rogov the same night to the Police Master 
of the Second Division, Major-General Grigoriev, 
and to M. Chaplygin, the official on duty at the 
Prefecture. 

Scarcely had the police officers left the palace 
when a motor-car drove up along the Moika Canal 
quay and stopped near a small foot-bridge almost 
facing the palace. Four men were seen to alight 
from the car. The moment they had left it the 
chauffeur extinguished the lights, and, putting on 
full speed, made off along the canal. This scene 
was witnessed by a detective belonging to the 
Okhrana, named Tihomirov, who had been detailed 
by the Police Department to look after Rasputin. 
Tihomirov presuming that the men who entered 
the palace, not by the main entrance, but from a 
door situated on the side of the palace and open- 
ing into the forecourt of the adjoining house, 
were robbers hurried across the canal to the 
police station, and thence telephoned a report of 
what he had observed to the Chief of the Secret 
Police. 

Colonel Rogov had no sooner returned to his 
home than he was notified from the Okhrana that 
information had been received relative to an attack 
on the palace of Prince Yusupov. A number of 



220 RUSSIAN DIARY 

police officers were again dispatched there. The 
butler came out and explained to them that some 
very highly placed guests had just arrived from 
the environs of Petrograd. A report about this 
was made during the course of the night to the 
Prefect, General Balk. 

Shortly after 6 a.m., at the police station beside 
the palace, while the police officers who had come 
off duty were being questioned in the ordinary 
course as to the events of the night, the sound of 
several police whistles was heard from the street. 
This drew the constables and police sergeants to 
the windows, whence they perceived that from 
the main entrance of the Prince's palace two women 
were being helped out, and that they were offering 
resistance to their ejection and refusing to enter 
a motor-car, and doing their best to force a way 
back into the palace. In response to their pro- 
testations the detectives stationed along the canal 
had sounded the alarm. By the time the police 
rushed out of the police station the motor-car 
was already whirling off along the quay. Hasten- 
ing out after his men, the police inspector, Colonel 
Borozdin, hailed the motor-car belonging to the 
Secret Police, which was permanently on duty at 
the Home Office building, and started off in pursuit. 
At the same time his men were hurried to the 
palace. It was impossible to overtake the fugitive 
car on account of its superior speed ; moreover, 
it carried neither number nor lights. To the 
police who came to inquire at the palace the 
explanation was offered that two ladies belonging 



APPENDIX III 221 

to the demi-monde had been misconducting them- 
selves and been invited to leave the palace. 

On the nocturnal adventures on the Moika a 
joint personal report was made to the Prefect in 
the morning by Colonel Rogov and Colonel Boroz- 
din. The whole affair seemed to be at an end 
when suddenly from the forecourt alongside the 
palace four shots were heard in rapid succession. 
Once more the alarm was sounded in both police 
stations, and again detachments of police appeared 
at the palace. This time an official wearing 
colonel's uniform came out to them and announced 
categorically that within the Prince's palace there 
was present a Grand Duke, and that H.I.H. would 
make in person to the proper quarters any explana- 
tions that might be necessary. After such a 
declaration, the police inspector, unable to obtain 
any enlightenment whatsoever, returned to his 
official duties, leaving a patrol on the opposite 
side of the Moika by way of precaution. About 
an hour had passed when suddenly from the direc- 
tion of the Blue Bridge a motor-car drove up to 
the palace. The servants, assisted by the chauf- 
feur, in the presence of an officer wearing a long 
fur cloak, carried out what looked like a human 
body and placed it in the car. The chauffeur 
jumped in, and, putting on full speed, made off 
along the canal side and promptly disappeared. 
Almost at the same time General Grigoriev was 
informed from the Prefecture that Rasputin had 
been killed in the Yusupov Palace. 

The police officials on arriving at the palace 



222 RUSSIAN DIARY 

were met this time by Prince Felix Yusupov him- 
self, who told them that it would be necessary to 
draw up a report as to the killing of Rasputin. 
At first this announcement was not accepted 
seriously in view of all the strange occurrences of 
the night. But the police officials were invited to 
come into the dining-room in the basement, and 
were there shown the spot where the body had 
been lying. They saw on the floor a pool of con- 
gealed blood, and traces of blood were also visible 
on the snow in the forecourt of the adjoining 
house. In answer to the question where the body 
was, the Prince replied that the body was where 
it should be, declining to give any further explana- 
tion. 

Soon afterwards the palace was visited by the 
Director of the Police Department, the Chief of 
the Secret Police, and the whole of the Generals 
of Gendarmerie. The police patrols were then 
relegated to their various stations, and at the 
subsequent investigation sent over to the officials 
of the Police Department. At 5 o'clock on the 
following afternoon a secret telegram was sent to 
every police station with a view to ascertaining 
the itinerary of the motor-cars which had come 
up to the Prince's palace during the night, and 
of the one which had removed Rasputin's body in 
the morning. At the same time numerous police 
patrols were dispatched to the islands in the Neva 
and to the suburban districts, 



INDEX 



INDEX 



ABAMELEK, 70 

Abdication of the Emperor, 124 
Absolutism, i 
Alexander I, 88 
Alexander II, 52, 96, 198 
Alexander III, 169, 185 
Alexander Michailovich, 31, 59, 93 
Alexeiev, 19 

Andr6 Vladimirovich, 29, 39, 61, 
90,97 

BAKU, 53 

Bariatinski, 70, 162, 1 66 

Bark, 69, 98 

Belosselski, 12, 58, 60, 74, 98, 

100, 142 

Benckendorff, 26 
Bennett, 119, 127 
"Blue Bird" dance, 31 
Bolsheviks, I, 176-7, 190, 205 
Boris Vladimirovich, 18, 27, 29, 

32, 45, 58, 59, 7, 77' 9<>, 98, 

101, 104, 168, 202, 209 
Branicka, 59 
Brassov, 68, 136 
Brooke, Lord, 99 
Buchanan, 12, 17, 23, 44, 59, 62, 

77, A 9i, 94, Il6 -7. 210, and 
passim 
Buckingham Palace, 66 

CALLWELL, 53 

Caucasus, 55 

Catherine II, 2, 12, 14, 15 



Charkov, 167 
Chinese Palace, 24 
Christiania, 43 
Constitution, 4, 129, 143 
Cossacks, 1 01-2, 106, 173, 177, 

193 

Covent Garden, 55 
Cross Day, Holy, 26, 69 
Cunard, 12 

DERFELDEN, 19, 91, 106 

Dmitri Pavlovich, 7, 23, 31, 32, 
33, 58, 73, 74, 7&-78, 83-89, 
92-3* 95, 131, 156, 169, 195; 
see Appendix I, 213 

Dolgoruki, 164-5 

Dolgorukov, 46 

Duma, 2, 52, 91, 112, 115, 120 

Duncannon, Lord, 99 

Dvinsk, 34, 207 

EASTER, 57 

Elizabeth, Empress, 24, 127 
Emperor Nicolas II, 5, 24, 29, 
30, 36, 39, 45-51, 52, 56, 61, 
83, 88, 91, 92, 94-5, 98, in. 
115-6, 121-2, 124-7, I 3 J 33~ 
4, 136, 144-6, 179, 181, 184-7, 

195 
Empress Alexandra, 5, 27, 28, 

30, 35, 52, 73, 74, 78, 83, 88, 
91, 94, 118, 122, 128-9, 134-8. 
144, 186, 188 
England hated, 151 



225 



226 



RUSSIAN DIARY 



FEODOROVSKI Sobor, 25, 27, 29, 

125 

Fire, A, 57, 61 . 
Fortune-telling, 62 
Freedericksz, no, 114, 119, 122 
French Embassy, 45, 114, 134 

GEORGE V, King, 4, 48, 50, 189 

Georgians, 53 

German atrocities, 163 

German influence, 2 

German prisoners, treatment of, 

7i 163 

Golitzin, 106-7 
Good Friday, 57 
Gorchakov, 37, 45, 95, 117 
Greece, Queen of, 57 
Grey, Lady S., 128 

HANBURY- WILLIAMS, 16, 29, 62, 

75. 98, 136 
Haparanda, 72 
Harris, Mrs. Leverton, 69 
Hartung, 33 
Hermitage, 17 
Heyden, 20 

ILCHESTER, Lord, 184 

JEWISH revolutionists, 120, 137, 

155. 181 
John of Cronstadt, 185 

KARSAVINA, 21, 51, 55 

Kasan, 65 

Kchessihskaia, 52 

Kerenski, 6, 120, 134, 150, 181, 

186-7, l8 9 
Kiev, 58-60 
Kislovodsk, 101, 149, 152-4, 

182-4 

Kitchener, 29, 49, 62, 63, 67, 131 
Knorring, 37, 100, 150 
Knox, 112, 184 



Kokovtsov, 27, 125 
Kornilov, 133, 138, 192 
Kreutz, 105 
Kudachev, 105 
Kyasht, 33 

Kyrill Vladimirovich, 29, 44, 58, 
90, 97, 115, 135 

LENIN, 157 
Liphart, 62 
Locker-Lampson, no 
Lukomski, 24, 33, 58 
Luynes, Due de, 68, 201 
Lvov, 4, 6 
Lyman, 89 

MACCAW, 70 

Marie, Empress, 22, 88, 122, 131, 

158, 160-1, 164-5, 190, 199 
Marie Pavlovna ; see Vladimir, 

Grand Duchess 
Marie Pavlovna II, Grand 

Duchess, 206 

Massacres by Revolutionists, 207 
Michail Alexandrovich, 6, 116, 

121, 129, 186-7, 200 
Midnight Sun, 71 
Milyukov, 123, 151 
Moghilev, 190 
Moscow, 14 
Murat, 54 

NAPOLEON, 34 

Neva, 57 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 71 

Nicolai Michailovich, 95, 97, 

123 
Nicolai Nicolaievich, 19, 22, 30, 

138-9, 141, 161, 190 
Nijni Novgorod, 65, 66 
Nostitz, 67, 98 

O'BEIRNE, 62 

Obolenski, 32, 151, 159 



INDEX 



227 



Olga, Grand Duchess, 93 
Olive, 15, 35, 74 

Orlov, 12, 15, 23, 24, 26, 30, 70, 
142 

PAGET, 52, 61 

Palei, 91, 126-7 

Paul, Emperor, 20, 76, 88, 108 

Paul, Grand Duke, 31, 68, 88, 90, 

156, 170, 200 
Peasant cruelty, 208 
Pembroke, Earl of, 52 
Peter the Great, 68, 74, 88 
Peterhof, 12, 60 
Pitirim, 90, 125 
Pokrovski, 97, 124 
Police Report of Rasputin's end, 

76 

Polivanov, 59 

Polovtsov, n, 19, 57, 70, 123, 196 
Potocki, 12 
Protopopov, 90, H2 
Provisional Government, 132, 

143, 149, 155 
Purishkevich, 85-87 
Putiatin, 26, 28, 89, 126 

RADZIWILL, 12, 91, 98-9, 105, 

107, 123, 132, 140 
Rapid, ii 
Rasputin, 3, 73-75. 79, 83-87, 

90, 92, 94, 97-8 136-7, 159, 

168 ; see Appendices, 215-222 
Red Flag, 116, 121 
Republic, a, 120, 129 
Reval, 38 
Revolution, scenes of, 102, no, 

129, 146, 171 
Rodzianko, 114, 115 
Romanovs, i 
Rumania, Queen of, 73 
Russian prisoners roasted alive, 

163 
Russki, 19 



SAVINSKI, 74, 94, 117 

Sazonov, 17, 30, 37, 44, 97-8, 

101 

Schahovskoi, 28 
Schuvalov, 16, 117, 162, 166 
Serge, Grand Duchess, 91 
Sergei Michailovich, 58, 98 
Skirmunt, 119, 123 
Smith, Rowland, 204 
Soup-kitchen blessed, 24 
Soviet, 6, 135, 152, 196, 205 
Stackelberg, 118 
Stieglitz, 1 8 
Stolypin, 31 
Summer, Russian, 20 

TATISTCHEV, 114, 117 

Terestchenko, 53, 101, 108, 206 

Terrijoki, 67 

"Tham'ara," 56 

Thomson, 98 

Tiflis, 53 

Tobolsk, 187 

Tolstoy, 53 

Torneo, 43, 71 

Trains for soldiers, 26 

Trepov, 51 

Tsarskoe, 26, 143-4, and passim 

Tyszkiewicz, 59 

Tzesarevich, 4, 29, 31, 36, 52, 

93, 100, 116, 121, 133, 140, 

144, 186, 200 

VALENTINE, 99, 135 

Viborg massacre, 207 

Victoria, Grand Duchess, 89, 

128 

Vladikavkas, 54 
Vladimir, Grand Duchess, n, 12, 

21, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 44, 58, 60, 

61, 69, 96, loo, 139, 152-4, 

158, 182-4, 2 5 
Vladimir, Grand Duke, 51 
Volga, 63-66 



228 RUSSIAN DIARY 

WATERS, 69, 70 YALTA, 159-166 

Wilson. 99 Yusupov, 14, 74, 76, 83-88, 90, 

93, 141. J 59, 163 
XBNIA, Grand Duchess, 123, 

164 ZAMOYSKI, 58 



PRINTED AT 

THE COMPLETE PRESS 
WEST NORWOOD, LONDON 



RETURN CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 

TO ^ 202 Main Library 


LOAN PERIOD 1 
HOME USE 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 



ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 

Renewals and Recharges may be made 4 days prior to the due date. 

Books may be Renewed by calling 642-3405. 

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW 



JAN T 1992 






DEC 9 i 


J21J 










j^r* 






RECEIVED 






JUN 1 1996 






CIRCULATinN DFP 


_ 





























FORM NO. DD6 

Hi 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY 
BERKELEY, CA 94720 



mm AUG 25l98T~ 




LD 2 l-i co m- 



<V39(402s) 



U.C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES 



BDD3Dlflt53 




40597U 







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY